The Rulers of Kaithal belonged to the Bhaike sept of Sidhu clan. The Kingdom was founded by Gurbaksh Singh , who was a descendant the celebrated Bhai Bhagatu who was contemporary of three successor Gurus, Guru Arjan, Guru Hargobind and Guru Har Rai and received from them the honorific title of ‘Bhai’.
Bhai Gurbaksh Singh, the founder of the Kingdom, was the son of Bhai Ramdyal, who was chief of Bhuchoo and had a great reputation as a saint. The son was a fine soldier and an able man, but he had little of the saint about him, and thought more of annexing territory than of religion. He was a great friend of Raja Ala Singh of Patiala, and they made many expeditions together, and he helped the Raja out of more than one difficulty. The possessions of Gurbuksh Singh were divided among his sons ; but they soon increased them. Desu Singh captured Kythal from some Afghans, Bhikh Baksh Khan and Nihmat Khan, and, with his brother Budha Singh, seized Thanesar, though the town and fort were afterwards taken from them by Sirdar Bhanga Singh, the fiercest and most feared of all the Cis-Satlej chiefs. When Desu Singh died in 1781, Lal Singh was in confinement as a rebel against his father, and Behal Singh, the elder son, did all he could to keep his brother in prison ; but he contrived to escape, killed his elder brother and took possession all the estates of his father, which he much enlarged by new acquisition. Lal Singh was, at the time of the British advance northwards, in 1809, the most powerful CisSatlej Chief, after the Raja of Pattiala. He was a very’ able man, though utterly untrustworthy, and so violent and unscrupulous that the English authorities had the greatest difficulty in persuading him to maintain anything like order. In 1819, the Government allowed him to succeed to the share of the estate held by Mai Bhagbari, the widow of his first cousin Karam Singh. Partab Singh the elder son and then the younger son, Udai succeeded, but on the death of the latter without issue in 1843, the whole of the Kaithal state lapsed to Government, with the exception of that portion which had been acquired by the founder of the family, Bhai Gurbuksh Singh, and to which the collaterals of the Arnauli branch were permitted to succeed.
Chaudhary Adam, zamindar of Bhalehar, married and had issue
Bhai Bhagtu, was a pious Sikh; he remained with Guru Arjan Dev Ji and Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji. When Guru Hargobind Sahib Ji shifted to Kiratpur, Bhai Bhagatu also went with Guru Ji. Bhai
Sahib had played a major role in the construction of Kiratpur. He recieved the title of ‘Bhai' by Guru Hargobindji.
Bhai Gaura, Chief of Buccho , was a brave man, mantained his own independent force of 500 men. Defeated Qasam Beg and through his enterprising spirit and prowess, became a minor chief at the village of Buccho, near Bathinda, married and had issue
Bhai Mehar Chand married and had issue
Bhai Dia Chand, founded Bacho Khurd.
Bhai Sain Das
Bhai Kushal Das, married and had issue
Bhai Amar Singh, married and had issue, a daughter.
Bhai Ramdyal, Chief of Buccho, married and had issue.
Bhai Bhai Gurbaksh Singh, Chief of Buccho, he was an enterprising warrior, and developed a friendship with Raja Ala Singh, the founder of the princely house of Patiala, together they made
many conquests; together in 1754, they defeated Sardar Jodh Singh of Bathinda and in 1756, they defeated the chiefs of Buhai and Buloda, leaving Gurbakhsh Singh in possession of Bathinda and Buloda, married and had issue, six sons. He died 1760 or 1766 or 1764 when his territory was divided amongst his sons.
Bhai Budha Singh, born 1725, a great warrior, he seized the districts of Thanesar and Pihowah, and built himself a strong fort at Kahod, which he made his head-quarters, he later lost Thanesar to Sardar Bhanga Singh, married and had issue (see Jhamba). He died 1774.
Bhai Dhana Singh, married and had issue.
Bhai Karam Singh, married Mai Bhagbari, she died in April 1818, and had issue, three daughters. He died 1810.
Bhai Hardas Singh, married Rani Rattan Kaur. He died vpsp.
Bibiji Rattan Kaur, eldest daughter
Rani Sahib Kaur, second daughter, married Sardar Gulab Singh of Thanesar.
Rani Chand Kaur, third daughter, married Sardar Hamir Singh of Manimajra, and had issue.
Sardar Goverdhan Singh
Sardar Amar Singh, born about 1807, married a daughter of the Balchappar family.
Bhai Charat Singh, he died spm.
Bhai Gurdas Singh, died 1781.
Bhai Desa Singh (qv)
Bhai Takhat Singh, born 1758, married Mai Sukha, and had issue.
Bhai Dal Singh, born 1779.
Bhai Sukha Singh, born 1760, married and had issue, the Sardars of Arnauli (see Arnauli and Sidhowal).
Bibiji Lalan Kaur
Bibiji Taran Kaur
Bibiji Karam Kaur
Bhai DESA SINGH, 1st Bhai of Kaithal 1767/1781, after his father’s death, he collected a force, and, advancing from Bhuchcho, marched straight to Kaithal and defeated the two Afghan brothers in possession of Kaithal, and established himself there as an independent chief
sometime around 1767; he began to further extend his territories and seized the town of Thanesar with one of its two forts, this excited the jealousy of another Sikh chief, Mit Singh, who seized the second fort at Thanesar, and after his death, his son, Bhanga Singh, evicted Desu Singh's forces from that town, his second son rebelled against him and had to be confined in prison, married and had issue. He died 1781 at Kaithal.
Bhai Bahal Singh (qv)
Bhai Lal Singh (qv)
Bhai BEHAL SINGH, 2nd Bhai of Kaithal 1781/1785, he was killed by his brother spm in 1785.
Bhai LAL SINGH, 3rd Bhai of Kaithal 1785/1818, he escaped from prison, killed his brother and took possession all the estates of his father which he much enlarged by new acquisitions, at the time of the British advance northwards, in 1809, he was the most powerful Cis-Sutlej Chief, after the Raja of Patiala, he was a very able man and so violent and unscrupulous that the English
authorities had the greatest difficulty in persuading him to maintain anything like order, in 1819, the Government allowed him to succeed to the share of the estate held by Mai Bhagbari, the widow of his first cousin Bhai Karam Singh, married and had issue. He died 1818.
Bhai Pratap Singh (qv)
Bhai Udai Singh (qv)
Bhai PRATAP SINGH, 4th Bhai of Kaithal 1819/1824, died spm in 1824.
Bhai UDAI SINGH, 5th and last Bhai of Kaithal 1824/1843, born 1802, died sp on 14th March 1843.
The Rajas of Punjab, Sir L.H Griffin
Bhai Gurbakhsh Singh Of Kaithal
Bhai Gurbakhsh Singh Of Kaithal, (d. 1764), founder of the Bhai family of Kaithal, was great-grandson of Sidhu Jat Chief Bhai Bhagatu of revered memory. His grandfather, Bhal Bhagatu’s elder son, Gaura, was a brave…
Bhai Desu Singh, (d. 1781), was the second of the five sons of Kaithal Kingdom ruler Bhai Gurbaksh Singh of the well known Bhai family, deriving its name from the celebrated Bhai Bhagatu, contemporary of…