History

The Jat people (Jat: जाट, also spelt Jatt: जट्ट), are a 33 million strong ethnic group of people native to South Asia mainly in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan as well as in Balochistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Rajasthan, Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand , Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat, Maharashtra etc all. They are classed various such as an ethnic group, race, tribe and a people. As James Tod has mentioned in his book Annals and Antiquities of Rajputana that in all the lists of Thirty Six Royal Races of India the Jats have found a place. It is no surprise that the 3rd President of India, Dr. Zakir Hussain said in his speech (Nov. 23, 1967),

“The history of the Jats is the history of India itself. Throughout the centuries, they have been known for their sturdy independence. Again and again, we find examples of their love of freedom and their readiness to defend it with their lives. In the same way the history of the Jat Regiment is the history of the Indian Army. For, wherever the army has fought, the Jats have been in the forefront and have distinguished themselves by their valour.”

Origin :-

The term Jat is the modern day derivation of the Sankrit term ‘Jarta’, literally meaning long hairs. This was a term that the people of mainland India used to refer to the Aryan tribes of the Indus basin, Makran and Punjab because of there practise of keeping long hairs and beards. These tribes included the Shivi, Sindhu/Sandhu, Suavira, Malav, Madra, Gandhara, Takshak etc. Most of the present day Jat clans are descended from one of these major tribes..

Ancient :-

The proto-Jat tribes like Shivi, Malav, Madra, Sindhu Sauvira, Gandhara, Takshak, Kekaya and others all are mentioned in several ancient Hindu and Budhist texts. The Bhagavata Purana and Mahabharatha gave us an account of there origins. It is mentioned in these text that King Shivi son of Ushinara, the Bhojak King of Kashi was renowned for his liberal beliefs and selflessness and from his sons are descended the various Jarta/Jat tribes. His eldest son Vrshadarbha became the Prince of Sivi Kingdom, his second son Sudhira became the ancestor of Sindhu-Sauvira people, his third son Madra established the Madra Kingdom and became the ancestors of Madras and Malavs and his youngest son Kekaya established the Kekaya kingdoms. To this day it is believed among the Jat that the asl(original) Jat is Shivigotri indicating that Shivi was the legendary progenitor of all these tribes. Many of these tribes migrated into the heartland of India and founded strong Empires and Kingdom, it was during the same time that the Jat identity was forming. The Malavs which originally ruled the country of Mallistan ( Multan), They have been mentioned as Mallians by Arrian, the historian of Alexander the Great and it was during the Mallian campaign that world conquerer almost lost his life. The Malav migrated east, took control of central India and became so dominant that the region came to be known as Malwa. They also established there own calender the Malav Samvat. The most prominent branch of the Malavs were the Aulikharas/Aulakhs of Dashapur. The Aulikhar Emperor Yashovardhana defeated the Hun invader and saved India. This incident is penned by the poet Chand in his book Chand Vyakrana as ‘Ajat Jarto Hunan’(Victory of the Jats over Huns). The Malli, Sidhus, Aulakhs, Sarans, Bhatti, Dhariwal, etc are all clans of Malav origin. Another branch of Malavs the Variks/Virks established a Kingdom at Bayana (see Bayana).

The Shivis whose chief town Śibipura has been identified with Shorkot in Jhang district. The Greek historians have mentioned them as Siboi and at the time of Alexander’s invasion in 326 B.C., they had 40,000 soldiers under arms, ready to fight the Greeks as Arrian records. A branch of Shivi migrated eastward and founded the Repulic of Madhyamika , A number of coins have been found at Madhyamika near Chittorgarh, and the legends on these coins are “Majhamikaya Sivijanapadasa”, i.e., coins of the republic of the Sivis of Madhyamika. The Sibis also migrated to the extreme south of India. The Dasha Kumara Charitam refers to a settlement of the Sibis on the Kaveri river. A branch of the Shivis, the Bhangus established there rule over the territory Budhia in Makran. The last of Ruler of Budhia, Rana Kaka Bhangu was mentioned as ‘Amir ul Hind’ by the Arab sources. Hala another branch of Shivis established the kingdom of Halakhandi with there capital at Siwistan/Sistan. The kingdom of ] Halakhandi was destroyed during the Arab invasion of Sindh and there ruler Raja Chandram Hala died fighting the army of the invaders. The Shibia, Punias, Godaras, Bhangu, Man, Bhullar, Haer, Sheoran, Hala, Tewatia etc are all clans of Shivi origin.

The Sindhu/Sandhu tribe which had there headqaurter at Vrsadarbhpura (present day Mithan kot) is mentioned as Sindhu or Saindhava in ancient Indian sources. Panini mentions the janapada (Republic) of the Sindhus between Jhelum and Indus rivers. They were associated with Sauvira-of the expression Sindhu-Saurira. In Kurma Purana and Vishnu Purana, they are mentioned with the Hunas : “Sauvirah Saindhava Hunan” as residents of Sakala, Sialkot. Mujmal ut-Tawarikh also mentions the Indianized name of one of their chief of the Sindhu Jats in remote ancient time as Judrat. In 739 A.D. the Sindhus had defeated the Arabs under their king Punyadeva. In 756 and 776 A.D., they twice repulsed the Arab naval attacks. A copper plate inscription of Gujarat, Chalukiya Pulakesi Raja Refers to Tajikas, i.e. Arabs who had defeated the Sindhus and other tribes in west India. The Sindhu is still a large Jat clan found throughout the greater Punjab region.

The Kaikeyas ruled the Kaikeya/Kaikenan state in the hilly region of south-eastern Afghanistan. The Kaikeya are known for there centuries long defence of Indian subcontinent against the Arab invaders. Arabs have mentioned that “the Bolan Pass was protected by the brave ‘Jats’ of Kikan or Kikanan. The Muslim army from Caliph Al-Mahdi, had also to fight with the hardy ‘Jats’ of Kikanan who are known to have resisted the Arabs as back as A.D. 662 which was conquered from Jats by the Arab general Amran Bin Musa in the reign of the Khalifa Al-Mutasim-bi-llah”. The Kakars and other related Jat clans are descended from the Kaikeyas. Historian J.K Jayaswal have noted the Imperial Guptas as been of Kakar Jat origin. In the Tibetan text Arya Mañjuśrīmūlakalpa the lineage of Gupta Emperor Bhanugupta is mentioned as ‘Mathura Jata Vamsa’( Hails from the Jat lineage of Mathura). Other scholars like B.G Gokhale and Tej Ram Sharma have all concluded the Jat origin of the Imperial Guptas in there respective works.

The Takshak tribe was an offshoot from the Shivi tribe and there original adobe was Taxilla. The Takshak Jats ruled the country of Kurmachal/Kumaon before the start of Vikrami Sanvat(70 BCE). We found from the Kanswa incription that in the beginning of fifth century, Maharaja Shalinder of Saroha branch of Takshak Jats ruled the kingdom of Shalpura extending from Punjab to Malwa and Rajasthan. Two Dynasties of the Mori branch of Takshak clan ruled Medapatta(Mewar) and Sindh respectively from 5th to 8th century. The Taxak, Saroha, Mori and other clan are descended from this tribe.

Jat Migration out of India :-

The Jats during the ancient times were actively recruited as mercenary soldiers by many great Empire of Central and Western Asia. Most of them were recruited as soldiers in the Sasanid army, in the course of which they lived in different territories of Iran and Arabia, particularly the region of Ubullah in Iraq and Yemen of southern Arabia. Likewise, they had they important settlements in Khuzistan also which had developed into great cities. They were known as Humat al-Zutt (area of the Jats) and Khabiran. Both were situated along the banks of two rivers.

Giving an account of the Jats’ settlement in Persia, Qazi Athar Mubarakpuri had stated that they had been living in this region since a long time, and they had developed many big and flourishing towns of their own as we are informed by Ibn-i-Khurdazbeh (d.893 AD) that at about sixty miles away from the city of Ahwaz, there is a big city of the Jats, which is known after them as al-Zutt. These evidences given by the eminent author are enough to suggest that the Jats who settled in Persia gradually built up their economic resources and made significant contribution to urbanization of that country. The Jats had made their presence felt even in pre-Islamic and early Islamic times in such interior places of the mainland of Arabia as Mecca and Medina is evident from the fact that Abdullah Bin MaS’ud, the Companion of Prophet Muhammad, is reported to have said that he had once seen the Prophet in the company of men whose physlcal structure and faces resembled those of the Jats. Besides, there is mention of the Jats in Hadith (Apostolic Traditions) also, from which it is further substantiated that the Arabs including the Prophet and his Companions were acquainted with the Jats and the main features of their life, namely their style of dress, hair cutting, music, etc. the garments used by them were known in Arabia thiyab zuttiyah (dresses of the Jats). They were described as tall statured persons of strong built having long locks of hair. As described by Imam Bukhari in his famous Hadith collection entitled Sahih Buknari, when Prophet Muhammad in the course of his nocturnal journey heavenward (Mi’raj) came across Prophet Moses, he found his physical constitution as resembling that of the Indian Jats.

Further, there existed a sizeable population of the Jats on the western shore of the Persian Gulf as far as the Isle of Bahrain. Although they retained their identity, they took active part in the social and political life of the Arabs by becoming allies and mawalis (members) of different Arab tribes. It is recorded in Arab history that the Jats had become allies and supporters of the Banu Abd al-Qays tribe of Bahrain and of the Banu Tamim tribe of Basra. As such they also participated in the pre-Islamlc inter-tribal wars and raids as supporters respective tribes, with which they had aligned themselves. Yet another solid evidence of the Jats’ active participation in the socio-political life of the Arabs is clear from the fact that they made their presence felt in the riddah (secession) wars triggered by the death of the Prophet in 632 AD, in which almost all Arabia broke off from the newly organized Muslim state and followed a number of local rulers and false prophets. As represented by Arab chroniclers, the Jats settled at Qatif and Hajar in Bahrain, sided with al-Hutam Bin Dubay’ah of the tribe of Qays Bin Tha’ labah who had raised the banner of revolt by rallying around him the rebels of the tribe of Bakr Bin Wa’il and Other non-Muslims of that region.

Medieval

Jats migration during the early Medieval period :-

After the fall of the Empire of Harshavardhan, The Indian subcontinent was scattered into several different small states. The Mori Jats held Medapata(Mewar) and Sindh(under the Rai Dynasty), the Bhangu Jats ruled over Shorkot/Sibipura(the ancient Shivi capital), the Virks/Wariks Jats occupied Bayana. A branch of the Malav Jats emigrated from Malwa(central India) to the Bhata tract/Lakhi and established themselves there. They came to be known as Bhattis (dwellers of Bhata tract). They made he fort of Bharatner (later Bhatner) there capital. It was because of this migration of the Malavs that this region is called Malwa (distinct from Malwa in Central India which is also named after the Malavs). Most of the Malwa Jats are descendent of these settlers , chief among which are the Sidhus and Dhariwals. The Dahiya Jats founded the Kingdom of Nagaur (6th century to 10th century A.D) . The Gathwala Jats under the leadership of Raja Asaram founded the Kingdom of Asigarh (modernday Hansi). The Khokhar Jats strongly established themselves in the Salt Range(Kuh I Jud). everal other Jat clans strongly established themselves at different places.

Jats and the Arab invasion of India :-

Military raids against India had been undertaken by the Arab Muslims as early as the reign of ‘Umar ibn al Khattab (634–644), but the pace of expansion in the region was initially slow. Several governors were appointed to the Indian frontier (thaghr al-Hind) and tasked with conducting campaigns in the east. They had to face strong resistance from the Jats of Kaikan and Mori Jat Rais of Sindh and a number of governors were killed while serving there.

Raids on Kaikan

The Arabs led several major and minor invasions in which they gained little to no success. Arabs tried all possible ways, they sneaked into Bolan pass by by passing Hindu Kings of Kabul and Zabulistan. In 660 CE the Arabs decided to invade Sindh. This time the Caliph Ali sent the expedition via land as planned by his former Caliph Umar several years back. The Arabs this time was under Haras or Haris but when the Arab soldiers reached at Kaikan, which was at located in the central division of Sindh kingdom the Jats of the Kaikan inflicted heavy casualties on the Arab Army and the attack was repulsed. During the Caliphate of Mu’awiya ibn Abi Sufiya who reigned from 661- 680 CE, the Arabs launched six invasions one after the other for the conquest of Kaikan. But yet again all these 6 attempts resulted in a failure. Mu’awiya then sent an army of 4000 men under Sawad. When the Arabs arrived at Kaikan the Jats charged at them. Both sides suffered heavy losses. But in the end, the Arab came out victorious and also captured the wealth of the region. But after some time the Jats of Kaikan again picked up arms against the invaders and blocked all the mountain passes. The people of Kikan now launched their final attack on the Arab invaders due to which the latter were forced to retreat.

Raids on Makran

The Arabs led several raid to Sindh through the desert of Makran failed, three of these raids were big but to no avail. It was reported by survivors that: “If small army is sent, it will be cut into pieces by Jats and Meds of Makran, if big army is sent it will be short of supplies of water and food in the desert.”

Two Arab commanders namely Abdullah and Abdul Rahman perished in the process along with their army. But in the year 680, the Arabs after defeating the Mori Rai of Sindh were able to establish their strong hold in the Makran area.

Conquest of Sindh by the Arabs

After the conquest of Makran the Arabs could now directly invade Sindh. The political turmoil created by the usurpation of the throne of Sindh by Minister Chach from Rai Sahasi Mori created favourable circumstances for the conquest of Sindh. Several relatives of the deceased Mori Ruler including Rana Mahrath, causin and Mori Jat ruler of Chitor and Rai Bachera, Jat ruler of Multan attacked Sindh while old vassals like Raja Chandram, Hala Jat ruler of Halakhandi and Raja Agham, Lohan/Lohana Jat ruler of Mansura were in open revolt. During the time of Al Hajjaj, the Arab launched a naval invasion of Sindh under Budayal bin Tahfa. At the Battle of Debal, the Jats defeated the Arab troops and killed Budayl. AlHajjaj gave Mohhamed bin Qasim command of the Sindh expedition between 708 and 711.

The Jats faught the Arab forces at Debal, Sistan (under Rana Kaka Bhangu), Bhudhia(under Raja Chandram Hala) , Mansura (under Raja Agham Lohana) ,Alor (as part of the army of Rai Dahir) and Multan however this time the whole of Sindh and all it’s dependencies were conquered by the Arabs. Qasim imposed several restrictions on Jats because of there rebellious nature. The Arab expansion east of Sindh was however checked by the Mori Jats of Medappata who defeated the Arab in 740 at Chittor. The Arab in Sindh eventually lost there power and became vassal of the Gurjara Pratihara.

Jat Arab relations after the conquest of Sindh

The Jats of Sindh like several other tribes of Islam converted to Islam, and many were employed as soldiers by the new Arab Muslim administration in Sindh. The Muslim conquest chronicles further point at the important concentrations of Jats in towns and fortresses of Lower and Central Sindh. It is also mentioned that they inhabited the whole area between the towns of Mansura and Multan. Under the orders of Walid I, at the beginning of thee eighth century A.D., a large number of Jats had been taken as soldiers by Arabs and transported from the lower Indus (river) to the marches of the Tigris (river in modern Iraq).The Jats soldier took all there belonging their families and even there cattles to Mesopotamia (They are credited with introducing water buffalo to this region and Europe). Soon after establishing in the new land, they started revolt against the Caliphate. They closed the Basra-Baghdad road which led to very high food prices in the capital, as the result successive Caliphs (The Caliph alMa’mun in his lifestyle was not able to suppress the Jats) sent their armies to subdue them. The famous Persian poet, Tabari, expressed their insolence in the following poem:

O people of Baghdad die!

May your dismay last for forever!

We (Jats) have defeated you, by forcing you to battle with us in the open country.

We (Jats) have driven you in front of us like a flocko weaklings.

At the beginning Arab generals were unsuccessful to subdue them and The Kalifa A-Mu’tasim as soon as coming into power send a army against Jats and ultimately one Arab general (A.D. 834) was successful to cut Jat communications which resulted in their surrender. Jats were exiled because of their revolt to Khanikin on the Turkish frontier and to the frontiers of Syria”.

Jat resistance to the early Central Asian Invaders

Jats and the Ghaznavids Rulers :-

The Ghaznavid were a dynasty of Turkic origin ruling, at its greatest extent, large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni laid several expedition into the Indian Subcontinent. During his 9th expedition in the year 1018, He was resisted by the Jats of Mahawan under the leadership of Raja Kulichand Haga. In his 16th raid Mahmud attacked Somnath. That same year Mahmud also attacked the Jats of Jud (Khokhars) and defeated them. Gardizi reported that the Bhatti Jats of Multan and Bhatia(Ucch) molested the troops of Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni in 1026 CE while he was marching along the river Indus to Multan after plundering the temple of Somnath.” To avenge the insult and harassment at the hands of the Jats, Sultan Mahmud under took the 17th and last of his Indian expedition against the Jats of Multan in 1027 CE. Their strong presence in Panjab is also confirmed by Baihaqi, who informs us that during the reign of Ghaznavid Sultan Masud (1034 CE), the Jat mercenaries had overpowered and killed the rebel Yenaltigin at the behest of Tilak, the Ghaznavid commander who had announced a reward of 500,000 dirhams for the head of Yenaltigin, the Governor of Labore.

Jat principalities in the 11th century and 12th century :-

The Soomras Jat established themselves as a regional power in Sindh, shortly after Mahmud of Ghazni’s invasion (c. AH 416/AD 1025) of Mansura, erstwhile capital of Sindh. They laid the foundation of the independent Kingdom of Sindh and ruled it till the year 1356 when they were replaced by another Jat Dynasty the Sammas. By the time of the Ghaznavids invasion the Khokhar Jats and Bhatti Jats have established themselves strongly at Koh I Jud and Bhatner respectively. In the year 1068 AD Rana Jai Singh, acquired territories near Bairat, south of Alwar and laid the foundation of what would came to be known as Bamrolia Jat Dynasty. Jats maintained strong presence in Central India where the Rewa inscription tells us how Karna, the Chedi ruler, trounced his enemies with the support of the Jats. In the Alhakhand we find the mention of Rai Malkhan and Puranmal Jat, who were cousins and vassals of Sirsagarh (In MP) in the service of the Chandel Raja Parmal of Mahoba. When Prithiviraj Chauhan invaded the Chandel Kingdom Puranmal and Malkhan fought the invading army at Gwalior. In the Bagar tract, Jats founded several principalities chief among which were Ladhania (Godara Jats), Sidhmukh (Kaswan Jats), Jhansal (Punia Jats), Bhadra (Beniwal Jats), Sihagoti (Sihag Jats), Bhadang/Bhadangabad (Saran Jats), Kanjan ( Chahar Jats) and Dhansia (Sahu Jats). In the Doab , the Balyan Jats founded there stronghold at Shivpuri (Sisauli) and the Salaklan sept of Tomar Jats took control of Baraut region. Just North of Delhi at the bank of Yamuna existed the Kingdom of Kasht ruled by the Taxak Jat.

The Ghurid invasion of India :-

The Ghaznavids were soon replaced by the Ghurids who were Tajiks by origins. Under Mohamed of Ghor they invaded India. It is to be noted that in the second battlefield of Tarain, Prithavi Raj Chauhan could not restrain the strong army of Ghori. Muhammad Ghori defeated Prithavi Raj, he was captured and killed. Thus, Ghori was successful in capturing Delhi and Ajmer. Mohammad returned to Ghori and appointed his governors in Delhi, Ajmer and Kanauj. In 1205, Ghori again came to India, and this time the Khokhars and other Jats stood against him. They had took control of a large territory stretching from Jud Mountain to Lahore. Muhammad Ghori brutally supressed them. The Khokhars were brutally executed. Rai Sal the leader of the Sindhu also met the same fate. In March 1206, when Ghori was going to Ghazni, he was killed by a Khokhar Jat (named Ramlal) in Dhamyak district of Jhelum (now in Pakistan). The several governors that were appointed by Muhammad Ghor became independent after his death. Qutubuddin Aibak one of the former slaves of Ghori laid the foundation of Delhi Sultanate.

Resistance to the Sultanate of Delhi :-

The mass population of the Indian subcontinent did not accepted the newly established Turkic Sultanate. The Deswali Jats of Haryana under the leadership of Raja Jaitra Singh Gathwala/Jatwan of Dipal ,who was formerly governor of Hansi , rose In revolt. In September 1192, Jatwan besieged Hansi and overwhelmed the Faujdar of that place. Qutubuddin Aibak marched to Hansi, forcing Jatwan to retreat to Bagar country, where Jatwan was killed in a battle. The Deswali Jats of Upper Doab did not allow the Turkic conquerors to establish themselves so easily. They gathered round one Rao Vijay Balyan of Sisauli and held meetings in 1201 A. D. and resisted Qutubuddin Aibak, but they were forced to acknowledge the supremacy of Iltutmish, who had succeeded Aibak in 1211. Iltutmish became the first sultan to appoint a woman as his successor when he designated his daughter Razia as his heir apparent. Razia was the first and last women ruler of Delhi Sultanate. Razia was soon ousted from Delhi by his brothers. In 1240 CE, Razia, daughter of Shams-ud-din Iltutmish, and her husband, Altunia, attempted to recapture the throne from her brother, Muizuddin Bahram Shah. She is reported to have led an army composed mostly of mercenaries from the Jats of Punjab. Razia and her husband were defeated on 24th of Rabi’ al-awwal A.H. 638 (Oct. 1240) and met there end at Kaithal.

The Khokhar, Bhattis and other Jat tribes remained semi subdued. Shir Khan, the governor of Dipalpur attacked Bhatner, defeated the Bhatti Jats and ended there rule over the area. From 1246 to 1247, the Delhi Sultan Balban mounted an expedition as far as the Salt Range to eliminate the Khokhar Jats which he saw as a threat. In 1255 A.D. the Jats of Upper Doab, together with 225 representatives of various communities of the upper doab, taking advantage of the unsettled affairs of the administration of Nasirud-din Mahmud (1246-66 A. D.). assembled at Bhukarheri and protested against the imposition of taxes on religious worship and festivals. In 1267 A.D they again rose in rebellion blocking the roads leading to Delhi. They we’re suppressed and order was restored in the region by Ghiyas- ud-din Balban (1266-87 A.D.) The future Sultan Jalãl al-Din Khalji fought against the Bhattis and the Khökhars in the late 1280s, and The Balyan Jat in 1297 A. D, lodged vigorous protest against the tyrannical measures of Allaudin Khailji e. g. forcing the local peasantry to pay one half of the land, house tax, and grazing tax on all milch cattle . In 1305 A.D. Baliyan army leader, Rana Ram Rai, conquered pargana Shoron,a stronghold of the Delhi Sultanate , as well as the adjoining area, periodic resistance continued into the fourteenth century, when the Jats formed mandals round Sunam, Samana, Kaithal and Kuran with the Mains, Mandahars and kindred tribes withheld tribute and plundered the roads. Sultan Muhammad Bin Tughlaq marched against them in 1337, destroyed their mandals, and they were torn from their old lands and scattered. In the 1360s the Bamrolia Jat Rana of Bamroli rebelled against Firuz Shah Tuqluq, Bamroli was attacked and the Rana was driven out of Bamroli by Muneer Muhammad, Governor of Agra in 1367.

When Timur invaded the Delhi Sultanate, he was was opposed by the Jats of Tosham (Haryana). He killed 2000 Jats. Timur dwells with considerable satisfaction on his suppression of the Jats, whom he describes as a robust race, demon-like in appearance and as numerous as ants and locusts.

Rise of the Khokhars :-

As we have already mentioned that several Sultans have taken expedition against the Khokhar Jats of Jud, however they remained semi-subdued. The Khokhars of Jud became powerful enough to play the role of kingmakers, as The 14th century historian, Abdul Malik Isami highlights Raja Gul Chand and Sahij Rai as the two prominent Khokhars who played a significant role on the battlefield on behalf of Ghazi Malik or Ghiyasuddin Tughlaq who would go on to form the Tughlaq dynasty. During the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq , a Mongol commander named Hülechü occupied Lahore(the capital of Punjab) in alliance with the Khokhar chief Raja Gul Chand, the one-time ally of Muhammad’s father. The occupation did not lasted long, the Khokhars were defeated and the city retaken by the wazir Khwāja Jahān. The Khokhar continued there raids on Lahore and finally under the leadership of Nusrat Khokhar occupied it. Shaikha Khokhar obtained the throne of the Khokhars after the death of Nusrat Khokhar. Timur attacked Shaikha and burned his residence during his invasion of India. Shaikha Khokhar was defeated and killed in battle against Timur force. Timur took several members of the Khokhar family as prisoners including Jasrat Khokhar.

Mustafa Jasrat Khokhar (sometimes Jasrath or Dashrath) was the son or brother of Shaikha Khokhar. He became leader of the Khokhars after the death of Timur and after his escape from prison with the intent to take leadership. Jasrat soon gained the rank of a general in the Timurid army and even married the daughter of Shahrukh Mirza. Later, he returned to Punjab. He supported Shahi Khan in the war for control of Kashmir against Ali Shah and was later rewarded for his victory. Later, he attempted to conquer Delhi, after the death of Khizr Khan. He succeeded only partially, while winning campaigns at Talwandi and Jullundur, he was hampered by seasonal rains in his attempt to take over Sirhind. After his 1432 win on Allahdad Kaka Lodhi at Bajwara (Eastern Punjab) Jasrath Khokhar kept a low profile. The rise of Bahlol Lodhi who would go on to form the Lodhi dynasty saw a surprise change of events where the former captive of Jasrath Khokhar, Sikandar Tohfa asked for his help to push Lodhi back. The result of this alliance was Bahlol Lodhi defeated and forced to retreat in Siwalik foothills. However, overtime the Delhi Sultanate now ruled by Sultan Muhammad Shah was compelled to acknowledge Bahlol’s rise in Punjab and accept his territorial claims in 1441 on condition that he would crush Jasrath Khokhar. The Khokhar chief would rebel again in same year, but Bahlol Lodhi and Jasrath would make peace and promised not to interfere in each other’s domains. The Khokhar neutrality towards Bahlol’s aspirations is said to have played a part in the establishment of Lodhi dynasty. After the death of Jasrat the Khokhars lost the political power.

Jat Kingdoms and principalities (13th to 16th century) :-

The Samma Jats wrested the control of Sindh from the Sumra Jats and ruled it from 1351 to c. 1524 CE. They also ruled parts of Kutch, Punjab and Balochistan. We have already discussed the rise of the Khokhars in the Punjab region. During the time of Khiljis, a Mongol army along with a group of Muslim Khokhars from Jud ravaged Nagaur in 1305 and established the Sultanate of Nagaur. The Sidhu Jats under the leadership of Rao Brard took control of Bhatinda and laid the foundation of the Kingdom of Bhatinda (14th century). Beyond the Chambal, In 1340s, Raja Bagirath Deoderian led the foundation of Kingdom of Picchore and In the year 1515, Rana Singhandev Bamrolia laid the foundation of Kingdom of Gohad. There were several Jat principalities which dotted the Bagar tract/Jangladesh. The Sheoran ruled over the pargana of Chal Kalyan, the Jakhars ruled over Riri and Mandholi, Solankis over Palam and Hodal, Dalals over Mandhoti, Dahiyas over Kharkhonda, Sindhu/Sandhu Jat took control of a large part of Bari Doab, Virk Jats ruled over Virkgarh/Sheikhupura. The Deswali Jat clans of Upper Doab and parts of Haryana organised themselves into Khaps/Clan Cheifships chief among which were the Gathwala, Balyan, Dahiya and Salaklan clan. The Langah Jats established the Langah Sultanate(1445-1540) in Multan under the rule of Rai Sahra, who assumed the title Sultan Qutubuddin Shah. The reign of Shah Husayn, grandson of Mahmud Shah, who ruled from 1469–1498 is considered to be thee most illustrious of the Langah Sultans. In the Punjab, Rai Chand Singh Tiwana founded the chiefship of Chinarthal, consisting of 84 villages in 1460, Rai Gujjar Grewal founded the small principality of Gujjarwal in year 1469 AD, Dhariwals took control of Khangar and Maniram Dhillon founded the chiefship of Manimajra.

Jats during the Lodhi period :-

The Jats during the start of the medieval period were mostly Hindus but over time the Jats became primarily Muslim in the western Punjab and remained Hindus in the eastern Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, UP and MP with the divisions by faith reflecting the geographical strengths of these religions. During the Lodhi time, the Samma Jat ruler of Sindh and Langah Jat rulers of Multan remained independent. Bahlul Lodhi, the first of the Lodhi Sultan already signed a peace treaty with the Khokhar Jat leader Jairat and hence the Khokhars remained peaceful. During the reign of Ibrahim Lodhi, the Jat zamindars(vassals) of middle Doab leadership of Rao Manchand Bach of Jatrauli, however the revolt was suppressed. It is noted in the annals of the Jats of Braj that when the Rajput ruler Rana Sangram Singh fought against Ibrahim Lodhi at the Battle of Dholpur then Kirti Mal Bamrolia of Khatoli, Rao Surat Singh Kuntel of Suratgarh/Pentha and several other Jat leaders joined him against Ibrahim Lodhi. Jam Feroz Samma, the Samma Jat ruler of Sindh lost the control of Sindh to Arguns in 1524. Langah Jat Sultanate came to an end in 1525 when the Sultanate was invaded by the Arguns of Sindh. The Jat principalities of Jangladesh were absorbed into the newly formed Rajput Rathore Kingdom of Bikaner.

Jats during the 16th century :-

The Mughal Emperor Babur marched on to Delhi via Sirhind. He reached Panipat on 20 April 1526 and there met Ibrahim Lodi’s numerically superior army of about 100,000 soldiers and 100 elephants. Babur previously had to the face the Jats when he entered Punjab . At the Battle of Panipat, Babur defeated Ibrahim Lodhi and laid the foundation of the Mughal Empire. This period also saw several cultural changes among the Jats. In the Punjab region Guru Nanak founded Sikhism which attracted a large amount of Jat followers. Bhai Bala a Sandhu Jat and Bhai Budhha a Randhawa Jats were two of the closest associates of Guru Nanak. Several Jat zamindars including Ajita Randhawa of Pakhoake Randhawa became followers of Guru Nanak.

Rise of the Sidhu Jats :-

We have already discussed how the Brat sept Sidhu Jats founded the Kingdom of Bhatinda after winning it from the Muslim Bhati Rajputs. Bhatis who by now have grown very powerful. The Chief of the Bhatis with the help of Lodhi Sultans of Delhi, attacked and took control of the Brar kingdom. Sangar the son of Fateh Singh, to avenge the loss of his people helped Babur against Ibrahim Lodhi. Sangar and other Brar Chiefs fought bravely at the battle of Panipat. In return of his service, the Brars were given there old chiefships of Bhatinda, Bidowal and Panjgrain, and Sangar was appointed chaudhary(headmen/Chief) of the Brars. The Sidhu Jats expanded during the 16th and 17th century. Kapura the grandson of Sanghar founded the principality of Kot Kapura (see Faridkot). The Sidhu by this time were also influenced by the teaching of the Sikh guru. Bhai Gaura, a Sidhu Jat and follower of the Sikh Guru Hargovind, defeated Qasim Beg a d took control of Bhatinda (see Kaithal) in the start of 17th century. Chaudhary Phul Sidhu, the jagirdar of Mehraj and chaudhary laid the foundation of Phulkian Dynasty. He had 7 sons who became the ancestors of the Rulers of Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Bhadaur and Malod. The Sidhu Jats also founded the republics of Mehraj and Buccho. They became the dominant tribe of the Malwa region by the start of 18th century.

The Reign of Humayun and Sher Shah Suri :-

The newbly established Mughal Empire failed to gain support among the Jats, particularly among the Deswali Jat living in the Province of Delhi. A chief of Humayun named Mulla Shakebi once laid siege of a Jat stronghold of Dhandras in pargana Gohana and wanted to wipe out the area but Jat attacked him so fiercely, that he had to beat a retreat. Humayun was soon defeated by Afghan Sher Shah Suri. During the period of confusion intervening between the death of Babur and the accession of Sher Shah to the throne of Delhi, one Jat Chief Fath Khan Jat of Kot Kobula devastated the whole tract of Lakhi Jungle, and kept in ferment the high roads from Lahor to Panipat. Haibat Khan Nlazi; governor of the Punjab on behalf of Sher Shah, crushed him after a severe campaign. Sher Shah Suri also captured the Salt Range and uprooted the Thathal Jats.

Jats and the reign of Emperor Akbar :-

Emperor Akbar was different from his predecessor, His early days were spent in the backdrop of an atmosphere in which liberal sentiments were encouraged and religious narrow-mindedness was frowned upon. Emperor Akbar even granted freedom to 4 Jat Khaps/Cheifship of Dahiya, Balyan, Gathwala and Tomer clan in matters of religion and internal administration. They were exempted from taxes and the Khaps were allowed to perform their internal functions with full freedom. From the Ain I Akbari, a document from this time one can get the idea of the strength of Jats in the Empire. In the Lahore and Multan Subahs, 211 pargana had Jat zamindaris and 68 were exclusively under the control of Jat. Bhattis, Kharals, Marrals Sindhu (controlled 7 parganas in Bari Doab), Wirk, Bajwa, Kahlon, China, Chattah, Chimah, Langah, Thahims, Tiwana, Samma, Ghuman, Hala, Bhulkar, Punia, Beniwal, Kaswan, Sangwan, Sidhu, Khokhars, Bamrolia, Balyan, Salaklan Tomer, Solanki, Kadian, Dalal, Dahiya, Sahota and Gathwala were the dominant Jats tribes found in Ain e Akbari.

Jats in Mughal Administration :-

During the rule Badshah Humayun, Fateh Khan Jat was appointed Governer of Lahore. Jats were appointed as chaudharies, thanedars, fauzdars and other officials. They also served in the Mughal army. It is noted that there were 35 prominent Jat nobles in Punjab during the reign of Akbar. Chief among these were Chaudhary Changa Sandhu of Padhana, Raja Manak Singh Bajwa of Pasrur, Rai Nar Singh Bajwa of Narowal, Rai Fattu Grewal of Gujjarwal, Chaudhary Ballan Singh Sidhu of Chakran, Chaudhary Wariyam of Mehraj, Chaudhary Abu Al Khair Dillon of Jabbal and Mian Mitha Dhariwal of Kangar. Rao Landey Rai Balyan of Sisauli received the firman and khilat from Empeor Akbar giving him and the chief of Dahiya, Gathwala and Salaklain Jat clan autonomy in there respective dominions. During the time of Emperor Shahjahan Nawab Shadullah Khan, the leader of the Thahim Jats of Chiniot was made the Prime Minister of the Mughal Empire. Mian Nasir a Kalhora Jat was appointed as the Governor of Sindh Province by the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb.

Jat Rebellions in Punjab during Mughal times :-

The Jats of Punjab converted to Sikhism in large amount. As Jats where a martial community, the Sikh Jats provided military leadership to the Sikh community which were in struggle with the Mughal Empire. Several Jat zamindars supported the Sikh Gurus chief among which were Chaudhary Langah Dillon of Jubbal and Mian Jodh Dhariwal of Kangar. When the Sikh community was going through the process of militarization and Guru Hargovind was raising his army, Bhai Bidhi Chand, a China Jat was made the commander in chief of the Army. It is also to be noted that Kushal Singh Dahiya or Bhai Kushal Singh Dahiya a Jat from the village of Badhkhalsa in what is now Sonipat, Haryana, India, offered his head in place of that of the Guru Tegh Bahadurji, which was being taken to Anandpur Sahib by Bhai Jiwan Singh and which Mughals wanted to seize. When Guru Govind Singhji laid the foundation of Khalsa, one of the Panjh Pyaare was Bhai Dharam Singh, a Dalal Jat of Hastinapur. Several Jat zamindars including Rai Dal Singh Brar of Talwandi and Chaudhary Ram Singh Sidhu of Bhadaur joined the cause of Guru Gobind Singh.

After the death of Guru Gobind Singh, the leadership of Sikhs was taken by Banda Singh Bahadur, he derived most of his support from the Jat zamindars of Sirhind and Hissar Firoza Sarkar. He started his campaign against the Mughal Empire from Khanda in pargana Kharkhaunda the headquarter of Dahiya Jat clab. Banda Singh divided his army into 3 divisions first one under the command of Baj Singh a Bal Jat of Mirpur patti, second under the command of Ali Singh, a Man Jat of Malwa and the third under Fateh Singh Bhaika, a Sidhu Jat, descendant of Bhai Bhagtu. Banda Singh captured Sadhaura, Rupnagar, Batala, Kalanaur and moved toward Wazir Khan, the fauzdar of Samana. At the battle of Sirhind, Fateh Singh Bhaika killed Wazir Khan. Fateh Singh Bhaika was made the governor of Samana and Ali Singh was made the governor of Sirhind. However at the battle of Gurdas Nangal, Banda Singh was executed and the short lived Sikh state felled. After the death of Banda Singh Bahadur the leadership of the Sikh was taken by Nawab Kapur Singh, a Virk Jat, under whose leadership the Sikh divided themselves into 12 Misls(states) and spread there influence throughout the Punjab.

Jats Rebellions in Braj :-

The Rebellion of the Hindu Jats of Braj started from the reign of Jahangir himself. The Jats were strongly established In the Braj region, hence the whole region South of Delhi to the banks of Chambal came to be known as Jatwara(Jat nation). In the year 1627, the Jats of Kated(sub region of Braj) under the leadership of Thakur Bhuri Singh Sinsinwar and his son Rauria Singh launched the Kaman rebellion which was suppressed by the Mughals. In the year 1637, the Jats and there allies formed the Ram Dal against Fauzdar Murshid Quli Turkman, who was appointment governor of Kaman, Mathura, Sahar, Pahari and Mahawan. In 1638 AD, the Jats defeated and killed Murshid Quli Turkman at the Battle of Jatwara. This was the start of the Mahawan rebellion. The Jats blocked the imperial highway, withheld the revenue and made raids as far as Agra(which was then the capital of the Empire). The Jat rebellion was one of the major reasons of shifting the capital from Agra to Delhi, surprisingly northwards, when the Empire was expanding in the south. Shahjahan employed Mirza Raja Jai Singh of Amber, Kasim Khan and other nobles to suppress the rebellion.

The rebellion was centres around three regions Kated(Kaman was the centre) , Jagrauti (Hindaun was the centre) and Par(Mahawan was the centre) . Mirza Raja Jai Singh killed Madu Singh, commander of Ram Dal and his son Singhraj in the year 1651 and 1652 respectively. However the Jat soon raised there head in the hear 1656 under the leadership of Nandram Thenua of Jawar. In the year 1660, When Aurangzeb came to the throne he signed a treaty with Nandrams and appointed him Fauzdar in the sarkar of Koel. Six year later the Jats of Braj elected Gokula Singh of Tilpat as the head of Ram Dal. Gokul Singh defeated and killed Nawab Abul Nabi Khan at the Battle of Sihora and tool control of the Sarkar of Mathura. He then moved towards the Doab and plundered Sadabad. A large portion of Agra Subah was occupied by the Jats and 3 army send by Aurangzeb failed to stop Gokula Singh. Emperor Aurangzeb himself marched on 28 November 1669 from Delhi to curb the Jat threat. Gokula Singh and his two associates Singha/Uday Singh and Virbhan were captured alive through the efforts of Shaikh Razi-udDin, the peshkar of Hassan Ali. They and other prisoners were presented to the Emperor. Gokula Singh was killed brutally on 1 January 1670 at Agra Kotwali. Nawab Hasan Ali Khan was made the new Fauzdar of Mathura, he was brutal in his persecution of the Jats, he destroyed several Jat strongholds on both sides of Yamuna.

During the 1670s, the Ram Dal was at it lowest however the efforts of veteran leaders like Braj Raj Sinsinwar of Sinsini and Sukha/Sukhpal Singh Kuntel of Sonkh it was able to maintain its existence. In the year 1676 , Braj Raj captured Au pargana and laid the foundation of the rebel state of Sinsini. Around the same time Sukhpal Singh captured pargana Magora and laid the foundation of the rebel state of Sonkh. In the 1680s, the Ram Dal took control of a large part of Agra Subah and founded independent principalities of Sinsini, Sogar, Sonkh, Sidgiri, Khair, Sahar, Jawar and Samuna. Raja Ram Sinsinwar of Sinsini became the supreme leader of Ram Dal, in prominence he was followed by Ram Singh Chahar of Akola (see Sidgiri), Rao Amar Singh Bach of Khair, Rai Nandram Maderan of Sahar, Balram Singh Dagur of Sumana, Nandram Thenua of Jawar, Rao Sukhpal Singh Kuntel of Sonkh ,Achal Singh Sogharia of Sogar, Alia Sinsinwar of Awar, Kirti Singh Sinsinwar of Garhi Raesees, Bukna of Kasot, Maha Singh Jakhad of Bhusawar, Chandra Singh Bisayati of Chiksana, Surjeet Singh Solanki of Midhakhur and Chatra Singh of Mahun. These leader took control of the whole area stretching from Palwal to Chambal, North to South and Ranthambore to Jalesar west to east. Raja Ram Singh was killed and Ram Singh Chahar was captured at the Battle of Bijal(1688). Between the year 1688-1696, the Jats of Braj saw setbacks however they regained there ground under the leadership of Rao Churaman of Thun.

The various Jat principalities of 18th century :-

The Jats rebellion in Punjab and Braj laid to the foundaton of several new Jat states. Out of the 12 Sikh Misl/states, 11 were ruled by Jat dynasties. These were :

  1. Singhpuria- Virk (see Singhpuria Misl)
  2. Nakai- Sandhu (see Nakai)
  3. Sukerchakia- Bhatti ( see Lahore)
  4. Bhangi- Dhillon (see Bhangi Misl)
  5. Kanhaiya- Sandhu (see Rukhanwala)
  6. Dallewalia- Kang (see Baloki)
  7. Nishanwalia- Gill (see Ambala)
  8. Phulkia- Sidhu (see Patiala)
  9. Shahidan- Sandhu (see Shahidan Misl)
  10. Karorsinghia – various ( see Karorsinghia Misl, Radaur and Kalsia)
  11. Kapurthala – Alhuwalia ( See Kapurthala)

Some other important Jats principalities of Punjab during the 18th century were :

  1. Manimajra- Dhillon (see Mani Majra)
  2. Kaithal- Sidhu ( see Kaithal)
  3. Thanesar- Kang (see Thanesar)
  4. Jind- Sidhu (see Jind)
  5. Nabha- Sidhu ( see Nabha)
  6. Buria- Sandhu ( see Buria)
  7. Ladwa- Bhatti ( see Ladwa)
  8. Syedwala- Sandhu (see Gogaira)
  9. Philaur- Kang (see Philaur)

The Jats of Braj founded several states including Fatehpur (ruled by Sogarwars), Bharatpur (ruled by Sinsinwars) , Sonkh (ruled by Kuntel), Sidgiri (ruled by Chahars), Mursan (ruled by Thenuas), Hathras (ruled by Thenuas), Hindaun (ruled by Dagurs), Ballabgarh (ruled by Tewatias) and Firozabad (ruled by Sikarwars). The Kingdom of Bharatpur was able to absorb all these principalities and at it’s zenith included Haryana, Doab, Braj and parts of Northern Malwa. Twice under Maharaja Surjamal the Jats laid expedition against Delhi. First in 1753 and in 1759 (combined Jat and Maratha army). Maharaja Surajmal was the one of the greatest ruled of his time, he is often considers as the Plato of the Jats. He was known for his calm personality and bold actions. He was a Vaishnav Hindu and respected all religion. In the age were treachery and bigotry was the norm, he showed chivalry to his enemies. Unfortunately he died during his expedition against the Mughal wazir Najib ud Daulah in the year 1763 near Delhi. To avenge his fathers death, Maharaja Jawahar Singh invaded Delhi in 1765, the Mughal lost and the peace treaty that was signed was humiliating for them. After the death of Jawahar Singh a civil war erupted which led to the fall of the Kingdom of Bharatpur.

Beyond the Chambal the old house of Gohad became very prominent, Rana Bhim Singh tool control of 44 mahals and laid Siege to the historic fortress of Gwalior. He ousted the Mughal from Gwalior and established his supremacy over the Gird-Gwalior region. The Kingdom of Bhitarwar(ruled by Haneselia Jats) and Kingdom of Picchore(ruled by Deoderian Jats) were other two prominent Jat states south of Chambal. In the Upper Doab, Chattar Singh a Jat Panwar founded the independent principality of Rohana. Beyond the Yamuna the Kakarana Jat Rai of Sahanpur controlled more then 2000 villages. The Kalhora Jats who were made the governor of Sindh by the Mughals wrested control of Sindh and became independent. Dude Khan the Rohilla chief adopted a Jat boy named Prem Singh Nain and raised him as his boy. The boy was raised a Muslim and named Ali Mohamed Khan. Ali Mohammed Khan became the first Nawab of Rohilkhand and the present Nawab of Rampurs are descended from him.

The Balyan and other Khap Chaudharies maintained there influence in the Upper Doab. During this time several Jat freebooters travelled far distances for fortune. Chief Among them was Babu Ram Jat who became very strong in Malwa. Many among these chief took control of large areas and settled there ,Rao Jagbarath Singh, a Khirwar Jat of Dholpur founded the city of Narshingpur and Rao Bhaul Singh, a Dalal Jat of Mandhothi, founded Kuchesar. In the Awadh, Almas Ali , a Jat of Punjab who was forcibly converted by the Mughals became the Prime Minister. Almas Ali personally held 1/3 of the revenue of Awadh and his time is known as the golden period of Awadh. Almas Ali called his nephew Bhagmal, a Guram Jat to Awadh and made him the Raja of Bhitur, Kanpur, Auraiya and Fafund regions. The Sandhu Jat Misl of Kanaiya at its zenith held suzerainty over all the hill chiefs of Himachal and Jammu. The Dhillon Jat Bhangi Misl at its zenith controlled much of the Western Punjab. The Sidhu Jat became the dominant power in the Malwa region and ruled the Kingdoms of Patiala, Nabha, Jind, Kaithal, Faridkot, Bhadaur and Malod. Raja Ala Singh Sidhu, the founder of Patiala, was one of the most prominent personalities of his time.

The Karorasinghia Misl under the leadership of Bhagel Singh Dhaliwal dominated the region around Delhi. Bhagel Singh is celebrated in the Sikh history as the victor of Delhi. He is known for imposing rakhi tax on Mughals and building several Gurudwaras in Delhi.

During British rule :-

In the start of 19th century Maharaja Ranjit Singh , the Bhatti Jat Leader of Sukerchakia Misl founded the Sikh Empire. The formation of the empire began with the capture of Lahore, by Maharaja Ranjit Singh, from its Afghan ruler, Zaman Shah Durrani, and the subsequent and progressive expulsion of Afghans from the Punjab, by defeating them in the Afghan-Sikh Wars, and the unification of the separate Sikh misls. Ranjit Singh was proclaimed as Maharaja of the Punjab on 12 April 1801 (to coincide with Vaisakhi), creating a unified political state. The Empire of Ranjit Singh consisted of Punjab, Kashmir, Ladakah, parts of Western Tibet, Jammu and Khyber Pakthunwa . It was the last independent state out of the control of Britishers. Maharaja Ranjit Singh was one of the most powerful kings of his time.

After the second Anglo-Maratha wars the Britishers established there sway over North India. In 1805, the laid Siege over Bharatpur whose ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh Sinsinwar had given shelter to Yashwantrao Holkar. It was one of the first instance in India that the Britishers met defeat. Lord Lake 4 times tried to capture the Lohagarh fortress however he miserably failed. After the war a peace treaty was signed between Kingdom of Bharatpur and British Empire. The Britishers then attacked the Thenua Jat state of Mursan whose ruler Raja Bhagwant Singh was in an open revolt against the Britisher Empire. The Britishers attacked Sasni(capital of Mursan state) and destroyed it. Bhagwant Singh was reduced to the rank of zamindar.In 1809, the Jats of Haryana broke into rebellion. The Jats fortified themselves in Bhiwani and made a strong resistance. A brigade of all arms, with a powerful battering ram, was required to suppress the revolt. In the year 1817, the Thenua Jat ruler of Hathras, Raja Dayaram was attacked and defeated. The state of Hathras was disbanded by the Britishers. In the year 1825, the Britishers finally captured Bharatpur.

The Britishers annexed several cis Sutlej Jat states and reduced several others. In 1820 there were 45 independent Sikh Jat chief South of Sutlej, however in the year 1860 only 4 remained. After the death of Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Sikh Empire became weak. The Britishers after 2 Anglo-Sikh wars took control of Sikh Empire and took Duleep Singh, the infant son of Maharaja Ranjit Singh as hostage to London. By the year 1856 Buria, Kaithal, Rupar, Manimajra, Radaur, Ambala and others were either annexed or reduced to simple jagirs. Several Jat leaders participated in the revolt of 1857 against the British Empire chief among them were Raja Nahar Singh Tewatia of Ballabgarh, Raja Shahmal Singh Tomer of Baraut, Raja Devi Singh of Raya, Chaudhary Ghasi Ram Panwar of Maulaheri, Chaudhary Ram Singh Mann Of Ghogripur, Chaudhary Deokaran Singh Haga of Kursanda and Chaudhary Bhaktawar Singh Thakran of Jharsa. The Jats participated in large number in the freedom struggle. The Great Martyrs Shaheed Kartar Singh Sarabha was a Grewal Jat then Shaheed E Azam Sardar Bhagat Singh was a Sandhu Jat, General Mohar Singh, Gurbaksh Singh Dhillon, Raja Mahendra Pratap Singh established the first Indian Government in exile, Meera Arya was a spy in INA, Achhar Singh Chinna and others.

Post Independence :-

The Jat are mostly located in the Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh states of India and Sindh and Punjab provinces of Pakistan. The Jats have carved out a name for themselves in the field of Military and sports. Chaudhary Charan Singh, the 5th Prime Minister of India was a Tewatia Jat, Nawab Liquat Ali Khan the first Prime Minister of Pakistan was a Marhal Jat. Chaudhary Devi Lal, a Sihag Jat, was the deputy Prime Minister of India during the leadership of K.V Singh. The Jats have dominated the politics of the states of Haryana, Rajasthan and Punjab in India. Mahendra Pal Chaudhry, the 4th Prime Minister of Fiji was also a Jat. There is a large Jat diaspora out of the Indian sub continent mostly located in the countries of Canada, Britain, Australia, New Zealand and United States.

List Of Jat/Jatt Clans, A-Y

A

Ablana, Abra, Abni, Agwana, Ahlawat, Ahulana, Alpah, Alwi, Amlawat, Andar, Angyara, Ansari, Antaal/Antal(also Untal), Anuja, Andari, Anwal, Anwla, Aseria,Arab, Arar, Arwal, Arya, Asar or Asra, Athangal, Atwal, Aujla, Aulakh or Aurak, Ayasi, Alhuwalia, Ashianal, Andhak, Abui, Ahuja, Arya, Alpah, Arab, Anwal, Andar, Alwi

B

Babbar, Bachhal, Badah, Badanah, Badechh, Badeesha, Bader, Badhan/Bidhan or Pakhai, Badohal, Badro, Badye, Bagga, Bagrah, Bagri, Bahia, Bahniwal, Baidwan, Bains, Bairwal, Bajwa, Bakarki, Bal,Bali, Baliyan, Balagan, Balham, Balho, Balwatrah, Banb, Band, Bandal, Bandechh, Bandejah, Banhor, Banipal/Behnipal/Benipal, Barian, Barn , Baryar, Basi/Bassi, Basra/Basran/Basram, Basanti, Bat or Bath, Batar, Bati, Battar, Batuhe, Bawah, Bawre, Behar/Bhar, Berag, Bhadah, Bhadiar, Bhagar, Bhaggu, Bhalar, Bhalerah, Bhaman, Bhamrai, Bhandal, Bhandar, Bhander, Bhango, Bhangoo/Bhangu, Bhaniwal, Bhanrar, Bhar/Behar, Bharah, Bharal, Bharanch, Bharwal, Bharwana, Bharyar, Bhati, Bhatoa, Bhatthal, Bhatti, Bhatia, Bhatiwad, Bhidal, Bhindal, Bhindar, Bhojiya, Bhola, Bholar, Bhonah, Bhotah, Bhotar, Bhullar, Bhutha, Bilan, Binning/Birring, Birak, Biring, Bochah, Bhojak, Bola, Bonah, Bopahrae, Boperai, Bosan, Botar or Buttar, Brar/ Barar, Bubak, Buch, Buhar, Bura, Burana, Burra, Buta, Bachhada, Bachhi, Bachhik, Badahwal, Badgujar, Badhautia, Badkasliya, Badrawat, Bangamar, Baraniya, Barolia, Batair, Bamrolia, Baupchya, Bawaria, Bawada, Bhainswal, Bhaishtola, Bhajraj, Bharkarwa, Bhalu, Bhandwal, Bhatala, Bhattal, Bhayan, Bheron,Bhoj/Bhoja, Bijasania, Bijoriya, Binjaria, Bopacha, Budhwar/Bodha, Burdak, Bapar, Banhor, Banwra, Baori, Bappi, Babai, Bhabha, Bhains , Bhalar , Bhalerah, Bhut, Bhutha, Bhotah, Bangad

C

Calandar/Kalandar, Chachad/Chachar, Chahil, Chalka, Chandar, Chandiwal, Chapotkat, Charia, Chahar, Chaurlya, Chayda, Chikkara, Chilka, Chharot, Chhelar, Chhirush/Chhoorus, Chitralia, Chityan, Chopra/Chaupda/Chopad, Chaddu, Chahal, Chaina, Chakora, Chamal, Chamer, Chanan, Chanbal, Chandar, Chandarh, Chander, Changala, Chankar, Channar, Chanon, Chanwan, Chasti, Chatha/Chattha, Chatyal, Chemiya, Chhajra, Chhaju, Chhamia, Chhana, Chhanb, Chhaner, Chhatta, Chhatar, Chhina, China, Chholiana, Chhon or Chhoni, Chimma/Chima/Cheema, Chohan/Chauhan, Chhonhan, Chohang, Chokahi, Chokhia, Choniya, Chosar, Chowah/Chowan, Chadda, Chandbar, Chandia,

D

Dhaulya, Dabas, Dagar, Dadona, Dahar, Dalawarya, Dalki, Dandakh/Dandak, Dandwal/ Dand, Dashah, Dawas, Deedwal, Deswal, Deswala, Devda/Devra, Dhanda, Dhanoi, Dharolia, Dhatarwar, Dhatiriya, Dhilawat, Dhithonia, Dhondha, Dhorelia, Dhorelia, Dhullar,Doga/Donga, Donderia/ Dodar/ Daundariya, Dhanda,Dabb, Dadu, Dagar, Dair, Daha, Dahal, Dahalo, Dahamrai, Daleo, Dahan, Dahonda, Dahang, Dahar, Dahawa, Dahba, Dahiya, Dahko, Dahloli, Daho, Dahon, Dahrala, Dahrija, Dal, Dalani, Dalo, Dammar, Dandi, Dandiwal, Danwar, Dangarah, Dargh, Daspal, Daul, Dehia, Deo, Deol, Deoania, Derija, Deswal/Deshwal, Dewala, Dewar, Dhadah, Dhadli/Dhandli/Dhadly, Dhadwal, Dhakku, Dhalan, Dhali, Dhalon, Dhami, Dhanda, Duhan, Dhandiwal, Dhandsahar, Dhankar/ Dhankhar, Dhanoa/Dhnoa/Danoa/Dhanoya, Dhanoe, Dhanri, Dhar, Dharni, Dhaliwal/Dhariwal, Dhasi, Dhatt, Dhaunchak, Dhed, Dhendsa, Dher, Dhesi, Dhillon, Dhindsa, Dhinsa, Dhol, Dhori, Dhotar, Dhudhi, Dhudi, Dhuga/Dhugga, Dihadrae, Dodi, Dolat or Dulhat, Domarah, Dosanjh, Drigs, Duleh/Dulay/Dulai, Dun, Dund Rai, Dusanj, Dalal.

E

Ekashana, Eram, Etwas

F

Faqartadari, Faqrakh, Fagura, Fadak, Fandar, Farswal/Pharswal, Fogawat, Fidauda/Phirauda, Foyar.

G

Gadar/Gadarya/Gadari, Gahamgal, Gahlor, Gabhal, Gabir, Gadarah, Gadari, Gadwar, Gagrah, Gahlla, Gakhal, Gal, Galhar, Galwatrah, Ghandu, Gandia, Gadoh, Gandu, Gangah, Ganj, Ganwan, Ganwanen, Ganwen, Ganwari, Garalwal, Garcha, Garewal or Grewal, Garhar, Gat, Gatab, Gawaria, Gazdar, Gazzi, Gelan, Gendas, Ghagah, Ghagrah, Ghalo, Ghalo Kanjanarah, Ghalowaknun, Ghaman, Ghan, Ghanghas, Ghatwal, Ghumman, Gill, Gir, Girwanh, Godara, Gohra, Goj, Golia, Gondal, Gopalak, Gopa Rai/ Gopirai, Gor, Gorae, Gorah/ Gora, Goratah, Goraya/ Guraiya, Gori, Goria, Goron, Gorwah, Gosal, Grang, Guda, Gujjral, Guraha/Gurrah, Gathawal, Galwa, Galati, Gandawal, Garwa, Gatara, Gathia/Gathiya, Gatiyal, Geela, Ghallu/Gelu, Ghanghas, Ghariyala, Guron, Ghatiala/Ghatiyala,Ghayal, Ghenial, Ghiroliya, Gobya, Gododiya, Gugarwal/Guggadwal, Gulia, Gurlawat, Gwala/Gowara, Guwarawa/Gwarwa.

H

Hagdoriya, Hatingarwar, Hewda, Hingroda,Hajra, Hakim, Hal, Hamar, Hamara, Hamath, Hamdi, Hamshirah, Hanbi, Handal, Hanjan, Hanjra, Hans, Hansalah, Hansarah, Hara, Harar, Hari, Harl, Hasam, Hathar, Hatiar, Hayer/Hayre, Heer, Heera, Heeray, Her or Porawal, Hijra or Hinjra, Holi, Hondal or Hundal, Hothi, Hooda/Huda, Hural, Haga Chaudhary.

I

Ichauliya/Icholia, Isharwal/Ishrwa, Ichogill

J

Jalwania/ Jalwani, Jamun/ Jammun, Jandian/Jandyan/ Jandwal, Janjar, Janmeda/Jaymeja, Jaralia/Jarale, Jarawata/, Jawara, Jayaswal/ Jaisvar/Jayasawal, Jhajharia/ Jhajariya, Judge, Jura, Jyani/ Jani, Jiani,Jabar, Jagal, Jaglan, Jagpal, Jahanbar, Jahanbo, Jai, Jajjah or Jathol, Jakhar, Jali, Jamra, Janer, Jangali, Jangla, Jani, Janil, Janjua, Jarah, Jaria, Jassowal, Jastar, Jaswal, Jatana, Jatatier, Jathol, Jatowal, Jaun, Jawa, Jawanda, Jawia, Jhad, Jhaj/Jhajj, Jhakar, Jhalan, Jhalli, Jhamat, Jhandir, Jhari, Jhawar, Jhonjah, Jhor, Jhotah, Jhuti, Johal, Jojah, Joldaha, Jomar, Jondah, Jopo, Josan, Jun, Junhi, Jurai, Juta, Jadaulia, Jadiya/Jadiya Malik, Jafran, Jajunda, Jakhar,

K

Kacheriya/Kachela, Kachela, Kadian, Kahl, Kahlon, Kahon, Kahut, Kajlan/ Kajla, Kalar, Kalasarah, Kaler, Kaleroth, Kalhir, Kalhora or Sarai, Kal Khand, Kallu, Kalo, Kalon, Kalru, Kamera, Kamon, Kanag, Kanaich/Knaich/Knech, Kanchi, Kanda, Kanda, Kandola, Kandwa, Kaneran, Kang, Kangrah, Kanjan, Kanon, Kanonkhor, Kanwari, Kanwen, Kanyaal/Kanyal, Kapai, Karhalah, Kat, Kataria, Kator, Katrah, Kauri, Kawari, Kawera, Kehal, Kejah, Kejar, Kele, Kerah, Kes, Khab, Khadal, Khadar, Khagah, Khajah, Khajan, Khak, Khakh, Khaki, Khal, Khalah, Khalani, Khalwah, Khamah, Khaman, Khand, Khangura, Khanjan, Khar, Khara/ Kharra, Kharak, Kharora, Kharral, Kharwala, Kharye, Khatkar, Khatra, Khatrai, Khera, Khichar, Khichi, Khilchi, Khira, Khojah, Khadal, Khokar/Khokhar, Khor, Khoreja, Khosar, Khroud, Khubbar/Khubar, Killa, Kingra, Kodan, Kohar, Kohja, Kohri, Kokarah, Kokraya, Kooner, Kuk, Kular/Kulhar, Kuliar, Kundu, Kuretanah, Kuntal, Kadolia, Kaharwar, Kajal/ Kajalan, Kajla,Kakkad/ Kakur, Kakodia/ Kakodiya, Kakran,Kale Rawat, Kaliraman/ Kaleramne/ Kalidhaman, Kalirawna/Kalirawan, Kandhol, Kandolya/Kandool, Kangoria, Kaniya, Kankhandi, Khubbar/ Khubad, Kewaita, Khadanla, Khadoliya, Khainwar/ Khenwar/Khainwa , Khakhan, Kandala, Kharagdania, Kharda, Khasa/ Khasha, Khatiyan, Kheriya, Khileri, Khirwar/Khinwal, Khyalia/Khallu, Kundan, Kulawat, Kunawan.

L

Labar, Ladhana, Ladhar, Lahar, Lahil/Lail/Lehal/Lel/Lehel, Lak, Lakha, Lakhi, Lakhiwal, Lakwera, Lali/Lalli/Lally, Lang, Langah, Langanah, Lapeja, Lar, Lasai, Lat, Lathar, Lather, Laur, Lawar, Lekho, Lel, Leli, Lillas, Lodhara, Lodhran, Lodrah, Lohan, Lolah, Loleri, Lorimalanah, Lotha, Ludher, Lunghere, Lurka, Lehndra, Lathwal, Lahari, Lakada, Lakhlan, Lalaria, Lobhawat, Lohan, Lohra, Lallar.

M

Mader, Magsi, Mahad, Mahal, Mahil, Mahani, Mahir, Mahar, Mahara, Maharana, Mahe, Mahesar, Mahi, Mahli or Malhi, Mahota, Mahra, Mahtarmalhi, Makol, Makoma, Mal, Malan, Malana, Malanhans, Malhah, Mallhi, Malli, Mamar, Mamarha, Mamra, Mamrai, Mann, Mand, Mandair/Mandare, Mang, Mangan, Mangat/Mangath, Marahar/Marrahar/Madarhar, Markanda, Markha, Marrar, Marula, Maryal, Masan, Maswan, Mat, Mattu, Matu, Megal, Megla, Mekan, Menas, Meri, Mermalha, Mesar, Metla, Mahowar, Malodia, Mandhan, Mandla, Mehla, Manju/Maju,Mand, Marrar, Miana, Minhas, Mitru, Mochani, Mochhar, Mohal, Mond, Mondah, Month, Mor/Maur, Moran, Morare, Motha, Mula, Mundi, Mundtor, Mandwal, Meel, Mehran, Mendwal, Mirdha, Mohil/Mohilia/Mauhal, Musawat, Mukrana.

N

Nand, Nagill, Nandu, Naradhania, Nardaniya, Narwan,Nachang, Nadho, Nagra, Nagri, Naich or Nech, Nain, Najar, Naloka, Nanad, Nadal, Nahal (also written as Nehal), Nandlah, Nanwa, Narath, Narhoach, Narwal, Narwan, Nat, Natri, Natt, Nawar, Neera, Nehal, Neola, Nijjar, Nordaha, Nun/Noon, Nimbad/Nimbar, Nohal, Noharwar, Nuwad, Nitharwal.

O

Obhai, Odhana, Oesi, Ojal, Ojh, Okhal, Olak, Olakh, Omara, Otar, Otara, Othiwal,

P

Pabana, Padiwal, Padwal, Paliwal, Pandhal, Pahal, Panghal, Parihar, Patel, Phuldoliya, Porwal, Padah/Padda, Pahal/Pahil, Pahor, Pakimor, Palahi/Plahay, Palu, Panaich/Pnaich, Pan, Pandah, Pandeshi, Pandher, Pandi, Pandohal, Panehal, Panjotarah, Panjuttha, Pannu, Pannuhan, Panohan, Panon, Panwar, Panwaria, Parer, Parhar, Passani, Patoha, Paton, Patre, Paungar, Pawri, Phakiwar, Phagura/Fagura, Phalar, Phalron, Phalyon, Phiphra, Phoghat/Phogat, Phulsawal, Pogal, Pohea, Pokhwat, Ponar, Poni, Poniya, Pontah, Pote, Puni, Punia, Punn, Punnun, Purahwal/Purewal/Puriwal,Pandhear, Purwar/Purbar.

Q

Qalhari, Qom, Qurejah

R

Rad,Rahal, Rahan, Rahola, Rai, Raibdar, Rain, Rajian, Rajwa, Rajwana, Rak, Rakhya, Rakkar,rakhra, Ramana, Ran, Randhawa, Randhay, Rando, Rangi, Ranidhar, Ranjha, Ratah, Rathi, Rathyah, Rato, Rattol/Ratol, Rawaki, Rawat, Rawani, Rayar, Redhu/Redu, Reman, Riar or Riyar, Rihan, Rokhe, Ronga,Rongar,Roth,Ruhil/Ruhal, Rana, Rangi,Ravada, Redhu/Rendu, Relania, Rulania, Ruhela/Ruilia, Rundara.

S

Sinsinwar /Sansarwal ,Sagwa, Sahlot, Saingal, Sakhunia, Salkalan, Sabrahi, Sadhana, Sadho, Sadhra, Sagal, Sahansi, Saharan, Sahi, Sahol, Sahon, Sahota/Sihota, Sahrawat, Sahwal, Sajra, Sakhra, Salahah, Salaich/Slaich, Salotra, Sall, Samdarani, Samejah, Samor, Samra, Samrae, Samrao, San, Sanbhal, Sanda, Sandah, Sandelah, Sandhal, Sandhar, Sandhawalia, Sandhi, Sandho, Sandhu/Sindhu/Sindhar, Sandi, Sangah/Sangha, Sange, Sangere, Sanghera, Sanghi, Sangi, Sangoke, Sangrah, Sangrota, Sangwan, Sani, Sankhalan, Sanmoranah, Sanond, Sansi, Sapra, Sarai, Saran/Sra/Sran, sarna, Sarao, Sarawat, Saraye, Sardiye, Sargana, Sarlah, Saroiah, Sarot, Sarsar, Sarwar, Sarwi, Sategrah, Sathar, Satiar, Satwahan, Saunan, Segar, Segrah, Sehi, Sekan, Sekhu or Sekhon, Sekun, Semi, Seni, Serah, Seti, Sethi, Sewarah, Sewari, Shajra, Sehwag, Sheokhand/Shaukhanda/Seokand, Shekhon, Shekhra, Shergill, Sheroran, Sian, Siar, Sibia/Sivia/Sibiya, Sidhu/Sidhu-Barar/Brar, Sinhmar, Soha, Sohal, Sohi, Sojani, Solgi, Solkah, Somal, Sonal, Sontra, Soro, Sotbah, Sotrak, Suda, Sudan, Suhag, Sumra, Sunner, Sura, Surwat, Swanch, Swaich/Sawaich, Sirohi, Sikarwar, Samota, Sihag, Singhar, Sobharwal, Sogariya, Sohal, Solanki, Sherawat.

T

Taliyan, Tangar,Tajar, Tajra, Tak-Seroa, Talah, Taleri, Talot, Tanwari, Taoni, Tanor,Tara, Tarar, Tareli, Tarholi, Tatla, Tatli, Tawri, Tewatia, Thahal, Thandi, Thathaal, Thiara, Thind, Thotha, Tiwana,Thenua, Todi, Tokas, Tola, Toniyan, Toor, Trag, Tulla, Tung, Tur, Tomar/ Tanwar, Thand, Tawar Dagur, Terawat, Thakran, Thuniwal.

U

Ulawat, Usrao, Udhana, Udhoke, UntalDhaliwal/Dhariwal, Uppal, Uthi, Uthwal, Uttamzais, Udwal, Ujhlan,Utar, Utthar, Ujyan.

V

Valana, Varaich/Baraich/Braich/Warraich, Virk/Wirk, Vagaud, Vaddhan, Vadiyal,Vahle, Vachhik, Vadher, Vashi, Vedyan, Vichach.

W

Wabah, Wadah, Wadala, Wadhwa, Wag, Wagan, Wagar, Wagh, Wagha, Waghmal, Wagi, Wahal, Wahala, Wahandi, Wahgah, Wahlah, Wahniwal or Bahniwal, Wahroka, Wahujah, Wains, Wairar, Wairsi, Wajar, Wajba, Wajla, Wajwarah, Walar, Wallerai, Walot, Wamak, Wanda, Wandar, Wanghaya, Wanjo, Wanwar, Warah, Waran, Warbhu, Warhe, Wark, Warraich, Warya, Warye, Wasir, Wasli, Watarah, Wato, Welan, Wijhi, Wulana, Warar.

Y

Yohal, Yolya, Yajania, Yatesar.

References :-

  • Khanna, Sunil K. (2004). “Jat”. In Ember, Carol R.; Ember, Melvin (eds.). Encyclopedia of Medical Anthropology: Health and Illness in the World’s Cultures. Vol. 2. Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers. p. 777. ISBN 978-0-306-47754-6. Notwithstanding social, linguistic, and religious diversity, the Jats are one of the major landowning agriculturalist communities in South Asia.
  • Nesbitt, Eleanor (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 143. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0. Jat: Sikhs’ largest zat, a hereditary land-owning community.
  • Gould, Harold A. (2006) [2005]. “Glossary”. Sikhs, Swamis, Students and Spies: The India Lobby in the United States, 1900–1946. SAGE Publications. p. 439. ISBN 978-0-7619-3480-6. Jat: name of large agricultural caste centered in the undivided Punjab and western Uttar Pradesh
    ^ a b Bayly, Susan (2001). Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge University Press. p. 385. ISBN 978-0-521-79842-6. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  • a b Bayly, Susan (2001). Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge University Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-521-79842-6. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  • a b Bayly, Susan (2001). Caste, Society and Politics in India from the Eighteenth Century to the Modern Age. Cambridge University Press. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-521-79842-6. Retrieved 15 October 2011.
  • Asher, Catherine Ella Blanshard; Talbot, Cynthia (2006). India before Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 269. ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7. Retrieved 29 October 2011.
  • Khazanov, Anatoly M.; Wink, Andre (2012), Nomads in the Sedentary World, Routledge, p. 177, ISBN 978-1-136-12194-4, retrieved 15 August 2013 Quote: “Hiuen Tsang gave the following account of a numerous pastoral-nomadic population in seventh-century Sin-ti (Sind): ‘By the side of the river..[of Sind], along the flat marshy lowlands for some thousand li, there are several hundreds of thousands [a very great many] families ..[which] give themselves exclusively to tending cattle and from this derive their livelihood. They have no masters, and whether men or women, have neither rich nor poor.’ While they were left unnamed by the Chinese pilgrim, these same people of lower Sind were called Jats’ or ‘Jats of the wastes’ by the Arab geographers. The Jats, as ‘dromedary men.’ were one of the chief pastoral-nomadic divisions at that time, with numerous subdivisions, ….
  • Wink, André (2004), Indo-Islamic society: 14th – 15th centuries, BRILL, pp. 92–93, ISBN 978-90-04-13561-1, retrieved 15 August 2013 Quote: “In Sind, the breeding and grazing of sheep and buffaloes was the regular occupations of pastoral nomads in the lower country of the south, while the breeding of goats and camels was the dominant activity in the regions immediately to the east of the Kirthar range and between Multan and Mansura. The jats were one of the chief pastoral-nomadic divisions here in early-medieval times, and although some of these migrated as far as Iraq, they generally did not move over very long distances on a regular basis. Many jats migrated to the north, into the Panjab, and here, between the eleventh and sixteenth centuries, the once largely pastoral-nomadic Jat population was transformed into sedentary peasants. Some Jats continued to live in the thinly populated barr country between the five rivers of the Panjab, adopting a kind of transhumance, based on the herding of goats and camels. It seems that what happened to the jats is paradigmatic of most other pastoral and pastoral-nomadic populations in India in the sense that they became ever more closed in by an expanding sedentary-agricultural realm.”
  • Catherine Ella Blanshard Asher; Cynthia Talbot (2006). India before Europe. Cambridge University Press. p. 265. ISBN 978-0-521-80904-7.
  • Karine Schomer and W. H. McLeod, ed. (1987). The Sants: studies in a devotional tradition of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. p. 242. ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3.
  • The Gazetteer of India: History and culture. Publications Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, India. 1973. p. 348. OCLC 186583361.
  • Mysore Narasimhachar Srinivas (1962). Caste in modern India: and other essays. Asia Pub. House. p. 90. OCLC 185987598.
  • Sheel Chand Nuna (1 January 1989). Spatial fragmentation of political behaviour in India: a geographical perspective on parliamentary elections. Concept Publishing Company. pp. 61–. ISBN 978-81-7022-285-9. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  • Lloyd I. Rudolph; Susanne Hoeber Rudolph (1984). The Modernity of Tradition: Political Development in India. University of Chicago Press. pp. 86–. ISBN 978-0-226-73137-7. Retrieved 20 January 2012.
  • Carol R. Ember; Melvin Ember, eds. (2004). Encyclopaedia of medical anthropology. Springer. p. 778. ISBN 978-0-306-47754-6.
  • Sunil K. Khanna (2009). Fetal/fatal knowledge: new reproductive technologies and family-building strategies in India. Cengage Learning. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-495-09525-5.
  • Oldenburg, Veena Talwar (2002). Dowry Murder: The Imperial Origins of a Cultural Crime. Oxford University Press. p. 232. ISBN 978-0-19-515071-1. The Jats, who are numerically dominant in central and eastern Punjab, can be Hindu, Sikh, or Muslim; they range from powerful landowners to poor subsistence farmers, and were recruited in large numbers to serve in the British army.
  • Alavi, Seema (2002). The eighteenth century in India. New Delhi: Oxford University Press. p. 67. ISBN 0-19-565640-7. OCLC 50783542. The Jat power neat Agra and Mathura arose out of the rebellion of peasants under zamindar leadership, attaining the apex of power under Suraj Mal…it seems to have been an extensive replacement of Rajput by Jat zamindars…and the ‘warlike Jats’ (a peasant and zamindar caste).
  • Judge, Paramjit (2014). Mapping social exclusion in India: caste, religion and borderlands. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 112. ISBN 978-1-107-05609-1. OCLC 880877884.
  • Stokes, Eric (1978). The peasant and the Raj: studies in agrarian society and peasant rebellion in colonial India. Cambridge New York: Cambridge University Press. p. 185. ISBN 978-0-521-29770-7. OCLC 889813954. n the Ganges Canal Tract of the Muzaffarnagar district where the landowning castes – Tagas , Jats , Rajputs , Sayyids , Sheikhs , Gujars , Borahs
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