Sardar Jai Singh was a Guron Jat of the Manjha, living near Atari, in the Amritsar district. He joined the Nishanwala confederncy, twelve thousand strong, in their invasion of the Cie-Sutlej tracts in 1763, when the battle of Sirhind was fought, and assisted at the seizure of Ambala, Shababad, ladhran, Amloh and Sarai Lashkar Khan. His share of the spoil was thirty-four villages around ladhranand Kharar, roughly estimated to be worth Re. 60,000 per annum. Jai Singh with his fellow-Sikhs suffered defeat shortly afterwards at two hands of Ahmad Shah Durrani, and had to abandon his holdings and take refuge in the hilly country north of Ambala. Raja Amar Singh of Patiala took the opportunity of annexing the Kharar villages, and thin led to a serious quarrel as soon as Jai Singh found himself strong enough to return and claim what he considered his own. The matter was subsequently compromised by the rendition by Patiala of four of his villages. Jai Singh was a man of consequence, and Raja Jaswant Singh of Nabha felt honoured by receiving his daughter in marriage.But, like many others of the minor Sardars, he and his son, Charat Singh after him, lived in constant fear of being swallowed up by the powerful ruler of Patiala. Charat Singh was accept British protection when it was offered in 1809. He accompanied General Ochterlony’s force into the Simla Hill country in the campaign against the Nepal General Amar Singh Thepa, in 1814, and gove good help in the matter of carriage and supplies. On his death his lands were divided into Churee equal portions, representing the numbers of his wives–the sons of each wife tailing a third share. This splitting-up ot the property had the effect of weakening the position of the family, and they were obliged in the same gear place themselves under the protection of the Nabha Chief, agreeing to supply him with fifty horsemen, und to come to him in full strength whenever he required their services. But they still strove to maintain their independence in all respects, save the obligation to assist against a common foe, while Raja Jaswant Singh was more than erer anxious to hasten on the day when the Ladhran family must merge as common vassals with his other subjects. A struggle thus went on for some rears. the Raja doing all in his power to bring his weaker neighbourg under subjection; the brothers steadily resisting the attempts of the Raja to deprive them of the position their grandfather and father had won and maintained. The question was taken up in 1827 by Sir Charles Metcalfe, Agent to the Governor-General in Delhi, on the joint representation of the Ladhran and Sonti Sardars, and referred by him to Captain Murray, who considered that although the chiefs should continue to furnish contingents for service to the Raja, they must be protected from his oppression, and their disputes heard and decided by the British’Agent at Ambala. But the Resident held the Sardars to be dependents of Nabha, and that any interference on the part of the British Government would injuriously affect the position of the Raja. The case was again taken up by Sir George Clerk in 1836, when this view was somewhat modified. The chiefs for some years, it was admitted, rendered suit and set rice to the Raja, and their obligation to do so had been maintain on many occasions by the British Government. The Government of India did not, therefore, deem it expedient to declare the Sikhs of Sonti and Ladhran altogether independent of Nabha. The Complaints which they had made of harassing and perpetual demands for serrice were nevertheless regardel, and the Raja was directed to dispense with their services altogether, except on the occasion of the birth of a son, the marriage of one of his sons or daughters, the death of the reigning prince, or in the time of actual war.* This decision satisfied neither party. The ill-feeling continued long afterwards. In 1851 Government admitted the claim of the Raja to feudal supremacy, and withdrew its own criminal jurisdiction; but this was rescinded in 1860, and when a sanad was grunted by Lord Caning to Raja Bharpur Singh, the Ladhran Sardars were excluded in the sthedule from the list of feudatories and tributaries of the Nabha State. The Ladhran Sardars have always loyally assisted the Government when occasion has required their services. They supplied horses, grain and carriage to the army of the Sutlej in 1845, and aguin in 184S in connection with the suppression of the Multan rebellion. During the Mutiny the family rallied round the Deputy Commissioner of Ludhiana, Sardars Budh Singh, Kishen Singh, Sahib Singh and Albel Singh took up duty as a personal escort to Mr. Ricketts, while Sardars Chaman Singh and Harnam Singh helped to hold Jagraon with a body of their own horsemen. Sardar Budh Singh died in 1877 and his son, Mahtab Singh, succeded him as senior member of the family, The letter died in 1904 and his eldest son, Raghbir Singh, inherited the title of Sardar and took his father’s seat in Provincial Dorbars. Sardar Raghbir Singh owned nearly one-twelfth bare (Re. 2,282) of the whole jagir held by the Ladhran Sardars both in the Ludhiana and Amritsar districts, in addition to which the office of adalat-i-sadar in the Nabha State brought him in Re. 200 per mensem. After leaving the Chief Judgeship of the Nabha State be was appointed Sub-Registrar and an Honorary Magistrate at Samrala. For his services in connection with the War, he was rewarded with a sword of honour, a gold watch, a recruiting badge and the title of Sardar Bahadur. In 1914 Sardar Bahadur Raghbir Singh enlistad his son, Jagpal Singh, even while he was studying at the Aitehison College, in the army as a Sowar; and the young man served in Mesopotamia in the 12th Cavalry in 1916 and received the Distinquished Service Medal for his conduct. In 1919 he went to the Afghan.War and there also he earned sereral medals. At the death of his father in 1930, Sardar Jagpal Singh was made an Honorary Magistrate at Samrala; and he is now a Captain in the Indian Army Reserre Force, besides being a Provincial Darbari. Dhanraj Singh, a nephew of Sardar Bahadur Raghbir Singh was educated at the Aitchison College and has recently received the title of Sardar Sahib. Several other members of the family ranked as Darbaris, namely, Rai Bahadur Albel Singh, Sardar Haram Singh, Sardar Sahib Sardar Hari Singh and Sardar Sham Singh. Of these the frt three were sons of Uttam Singh who was present with the British army in Kabul during the first Afghan War, while Sham Singh was the eldest son of Raja Singh. All are now dead. The most distinguished of these brothers was Serdar Albel Singh Atter helping the Deputy Commissioner, Ludhiana, in the earliest stages of the Mutins, he was elected for active service and joined Watson’ Horse (later called the 13th Lancers), bringing with him one hundred sowers and receiving the rank of Risaldar. He fought splendidly in many battles beside his gallant Commander General Sir John Watson, V.C., who in 1870 wrote to his old comrade: “If any one should ask anything concerning you, show him this letter, and he will read that for 17 years I have known you as a valuable servant of the State and never ceased to regard you as a personal friend, and to esteem you for your many good qualities of head and heart Sardar Albel Singh was entrusted for years with the enlistment and management of the Sikhs of his regiment, and his tact and intelligence secured him the lore and esteem of all the men, who regarded him in the light of a father. He possessed handsome testimonial from many distinguished officers who knew him well, including General Sir Hugh Gough, General Sir R. C. Low, and Colonel Macnaghten. He took part in the Afghan War of 1879, and was in Bgypt with the Expedition of 1882. Lord Northbrook conferred upon him the title of Rai Bahadur in 1875. He was for a short time an Aide-de-Camp to His Excellency Lord Napier of Magdala, and was attached as an orderly officer to His Royal Highness the Prince of Wales in 1876. At the close of the Egyptian campaign he visited England and received hie War Medal from the hand of Her Late Majesty the Queen Empress; obtaining at the same time the rank of Risaldar-Major in his old regiment. He retired on a pension of Re. 1,560 per annum and was granted 3,000 acres of land in the Shahpur district, the assessment of whieh, Ra. 662, wae remitted in acknowledgment of his gallant services. He died in 1902. He had three sons, Chatar Singh, Khushal Singh and Kartar Singh. The frst was a Risaldar in his father’s regiment and later rose to be a Risaldar-Major. He died in 1880. Khushal Singh served as a Tahsildar in Patiala, and died in 1914. His only son, Gurbax Singh, was a Risaldar in the Patiala State Regimeut. Sardar Kartar Singh joined the 12th Cavalry in 1888 and served therein up to 1917. He saw active service in 1896 in the relief of Chitral and was awarded a medal with clasp. He succeeded his father to the hereditary title of Sardar and a seat in the Darbar in 1910. He acted as an Aide-de-Camp to General Remington, on the occasion of the Coronation Darbar of 1911, when he was presented to His Majesty the King Emperor and awarded the Coronation Medal. In 1915, he went with his regiment as its Risaldar-Major to Mesopotamia where he contracted illness in 1917 and was invalided home. In the latter year he was awarded the Order of British India with the title of ” Bahadur”. Besides this the actire service won him three medals, namely, the Star of 1914-15, the General Service Medal, and the Victory Medal. Sardar Kartar Singh Bahadur retired on a pension of Rs. 1,020, but dieil from the effects of the illness contracted on feld service in 1918. His widow was granted a family pension of Rs. 1,000 per annum which sle continues to enjoy. His son, Sardar Harbuns Singh, succeeded his father to the bereditary title of Sardar and seat in the Darber, He is a graduate of the Punjab University and a nominated Maxton Assistant Commissioner, in which capacity he continues to serve the Government.Sardar Harbans Singh’ wife holds the M.B., B.S. degree from Tady Hardinge Medical College, Delhi. He has donated a Gold Medal Called ” Albel Singh Watson Gold Medal ” to the Aitchison College to keep green the memory of his grandfather and his gallant Commander, Sir John Watson, V.O.,G.C.B. Another son of Sardar Kartar Singh, Gurbachan Singh, after receiving his early education at the Aitchison College and undergoing a military course for tiro rears, was commisioned and posted to the lith Hussare at Meerut in 1923. He later joined the 7th Light Cavalry in 1924-the year in which he was married to the eldest daughter of His Highness the Maharaja of Jind; and the Maharaj Kumari, besides bringing a large dowry, continues to enjoy a personal allowance of Rs. 12,000 per annum from the State. Through this marriage the Sardar is entitled to the prefix of “Kanwar” which has been recognised by the Government of India. Of the three roung male children of Captain Kanwar Gurbachan Singh, the elder two are being educated at the Preparatory School, Bigsboth, Woking ham. Surrey. Mari Singh was present as a boy in Major Broadfoot’s camp wheel the hattles of Ferozeshah and Mudki were fought. Shortly after the Mutiny broke out he acted on orders received from Sir John Lawrence and raised and equipped a full troop, which became a portion of the 12th Bengal Cavalry. He received the rank of Risaldar, and fought well all through the campaign. He also did good service in Abyssinia and Afghanistan. He retired in 1885 after holding a Risaldar’s Commission for 23 ears, during which period he retained the highest re. gard and respect of every officer with whom he served. He enjoyed the title of Sardar Bahadur. He died in 1907. His son, Mansa Singh, served for some time as an Extra Assistant Commissioner, and died, leaving behind three sons. The eldest, Kuldip Singh, succeeded to the jagir according to the rule of primogeniture. He was enlisted in the 12th Cavalry in the Great War He is at present a member of the District Board in Karnal. His younger brother, Harchand Singh, has settled at Haripur in Karnal, and the youngest, Ram Narain Singh, is studying at the Government College, Lahore, The three brothers own about 2,300 aores of land in the Karnal district in addition to the property held by them at Ladhran. Various other members of the junior branches of the Ladhran family have risen to responsible positions, or hare earned distinctions by rendering help to the State during the Great War or on other occasions, Such are Sardar Chhaja Singh, son of Sardar Haram Singh, who assisted in recruitment during the War aud received a sanad from His Excellency the Commander-in-Chief; Colonel Balwant Singh who serred the Nabha State for many yers; and Sardar Bharpur Singh who is still serving in that State as a police officer. Honorary Lieutenant Risaldar-Major Jit Singh served the 6th Duke of Connaught’; Lancers (Watson’ Horse) and saw active service in France from 1914-17, and later in the Baluchistan and Chaman in 1919. He was attached as an orderly officer to his Royal Highness the Duke of Connaught during his Indian tour in 1920. He retired in 1930 on an annual pension of Re. 1,500 with the additional jagir Inam of Re. 120. During his career he won several military medals and distinctions, the last being the rank of an Honorary Lieutenant. Siddat Ranjodh Singh, son of Sarder Shamsher Singh, also enlisted in the 6th Duke of Connaught’s Lancers, was promoted to the rank of Rinaldar, and sent with his regiment during the Great War to Mesopotamia where, however, he died of illness. Sardor Dalip Singh, son of Sardar Sundar Singh, assisted in recruitment during the War and later in the suppression of the Ghaddar conspiracy and of the Akali movement. Besides being appointed a Sub-Registrar at Samrala, he was awarded 8 rectangles of Jand as a gentry grant in the Multan district and was made a Divisional Darbari. He is also a member of the District Board and President of the Khalsa High School, Ludhiana. Sardar Uday Singh, son of Sardar Bhagwan Singh, has risen to be an Extra Assistant Commissioner. All the Sardars of the Ladhran family cannot be expected to be in flourishing circumstances, and were it not for remittance of sarings made by those who are in military employment, many of its members would be in worse position than they are. They are, however, striving to better their conditions by mutual co-operation, they hare recently opened a girl’s school for the education of their daughters, hare started a few model agricultural farms, and founded the Ladhran Sardars’ Welfare Association for promoting the family’s common good. Their jagir comprises the revenue of 25 villages situated in the Ludhiana district and four situated in the Ambala district, yielding Rs. 27,000 annually. But it is split up amongst numerous branches of Charat Singh’s descendants, and Sir Thomas Gordon Walker, at one time* Settlement Officer of Ludhiana, was of opinion (even before 1910) that at no very distant date, the shares would be insuficient for their maintenance.