Place – Tilpat (Tillu in present Mathura District,Uttar Pradesh)
Belligerents – Jats | Mughal Empire
Commanders and leaders – (°=Commander,†=captured)
°Chaudhary Gokula Singh (Zamindar of Tilpat)†
°Chaudhary Uday Singh ,’Sonki'(Castellan of Ghirsa and estate holder of Muaza of same name)†
- Mughal Empire
°Auranjeb(Emperor of Mughal Empire)
°Syed Hasan Ali
Jats – 7,000
Mughal Empire – Not properly recorded (records states endless horde of Mughal soldiers)
Jats – 3000 killed,7000 captured(women commited suicide)
Mughal Empire – 4000 killed
The revolt of Jats in Braj region started soon after the death of Emperor Akbar(See my post on Battle of Sihora for more). Emperor Aurangzeb appointed the fanatic Abul Nabi as the Fauzdar of Mathura in 1660. Abul Nabi entered heartily into Auranjeb’s policy of rooting out idoltary. He started destroying temples and banned the celebration of Hindu festival. He made his center at Sadabad to monitor Gokula Singh. Ch. Gokula Singh invited a number of Jat Sardars to the Garhi of Sihora discussing anti mughal policies. Abul Nabi came to know about Gokula designs.He marched to the fortified village of Sihora. The jats under the leadership of Ch.Gokula Singh came out of the Garhi for an open battle. Initialy the Mughal appeared taking the lead being numerically stronger and better equipped.The situation reverted and the result of the battle was decided when Gokula Singh slayed Abul Nabi. Many Mughal soldiers were made prisoners.The Battle of Sihora ended Mughal authority in Sahar Sirkar and Mathura Pargana. The victorious jats then attacked and ravaged the important mughal cantonment and Pargana of Sadabad .The revolt soon spread to Agra Pargana. Aurangzeb appointed Randandaz Khan the Fauzdar who was again defeated by Ch.GokulaSingh. After him Hasan Ali Khan was made the Fauzdar who also met the faith of his predeccesor.
Aurangzeb himself started campaign against Gokula Singh. Gokula Singh sent a messenger to Aurangzeb that jats were ready for battle against the moghul forces, which should be sent forth with for the final decision. Aurangzeb replied through the messenger that their stand against the royal army would be disastrous and they should return to their homes, their grievances would be redressed and due compensation paid. Jats were too hurt to care for the compensation. Gokula Singh sent the reply ‘Lost reputation can not be compensated so easily’. Jats have had enough of your rule, therefore they have come for a decision. Come Forward’. Aurangzeb ordered a huge army under the command of Chiefs Syed Hasan Ali and Jehan Khan with implicit instructions to crush the obstinate jats. The king himself rode in the ‘howdaha’ of an elephant in personal command of heavy artillery. A bloody battle ensued, in which a large number of casualties occurred on both sides.Finally the artillery fire scattered the jats. Gokal Singh, was captured, taken to Agra and mercilessly hatched limb by limb. The Jats dispersed but continued raiding royal pargnas around Tilpat.
7000 jats were captured. Gokula and Uday Singh were imprisoned. Jat women committed Jauhar. Gokula Singh was offered pardon if he accepted Islam. To tease the Emperor, Gokula demanded his daughter in return. Gokula and Uday Singh were hacked to death piece by piece at Agra Kotwali(outside the Gate of Fort) on January 1, 1670.7000 Jats were either imprisoned or killed at the Kotwali.
The death of Gokal Singh roused the spirit of the jats, who pledged to continue their struggle. One leader after another came to the fore till the Moghul rule came to an end.
- नरेन्द्रसिंहवर्मा – वीरवरअमरज्योतिगोकुलसिंह, संकल्पप्रकाशन, आगरा, 1986, पृष्ट 49-50
- History of the Jats/Chapter X, p. 153-154
- Maharaja SurajMal by Kunwar Natwar Singh