From Farrukhabad the Sikhs rushed back homeward. They arrived at Delhi on 8 March, 1783. The enormous booty acquired during this expedition was sent to their homes under the custody of 10,000 men. A strong body of 50,000 men remained at Delhi. They were again divided into two groups,each under Baghel Singh and Jassa Singh Ahluwalia. Baghel Singh’s troops, numbering 30,000 encamped at a place now called Tis Hazari. On that very day they plundered Malka Gani. Sabzi Mandi and Mughalpura. On 9 March, 1783, Pahari Dhiraj was attacked. In an engagement the son of Rao Dhiraj Ram was killed. Jassa Singh broke through Ajmeri Gate, and ravaged Hauz Qazi. The inhabitants fled into the Red Fort for shelter. The Emperor invited Begam Samru for help from Sardhana in Mirath district. The Sikhs continued plundering the other parts of the city.The booty was deposited at Majnun ka Tila. Just at this time Jassa Singh Ramgarhia arrived at Delhi from Hisar at the head of 10,000 troops. He had been driven out of the Panjab by Jassa Singh Ahluwalia and others. After devastating the walled city and its suburbs, the Sikhs on 12 March, 1783 turned to the Red Fort to seize the property of the refugees who had taken shelter there.They stopped before Diwan-e-Am. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia’s force of 20,000 desired to place their leader on the throne. He was led inside, seated on the throne, and was loudly proclaimed as Badshah Singh. By this time Jassa Singh Ramgarhia arrived on the scene. He demanded immediate withdrawal of the Ahluwalia chief from Diwan-e-Am. Both sides drew out their swords. Ahluwalia at once got down the throne and ordered his men to vacate the fort. All retired to their respective camps. The same day Begam Samu reached Delhi. She had friendly relations with Baghel Singh who had saved her during a Sikh incursion of Mirath district. The Emperor gave her full authority to settle terms with the Sikhs in order to save the city from further misery and misfortune. She called on Baghel Singh in his camp at Tis Hazäri. Jassa Singh Ahluwalia had declined to represent the Budha Dal. This authority was assigned to Baghel Singh by both the Jassa Singhs. The following terms were settled between her and Baghel Singh, and were approved by the Emperor:

  1. The Dal Khalsa should retire from Delhi immediately.
  2. Baghel Singh would stay in the capital with his own 4,000 troops.
  3. He would be responsible for maintaining law and order in the city.
  4. He would establish his camp in Sabzi Mandi (old site).
  5. The Sikhs would not misbehave in any way during their stay in the capital.
  6. Baghel Singh would charge six annas in the rupee (37.5%) of all the octroi duties in Delhi to meet the expenses for preserving peace.
  7. Baghel Singh was allowed to build seven gurdwaras at the sacred places of the Sikhs.
  8. The construction of gurdwaras was to be finished within a yearat the most.

In consequence most of the Sikhs left Delhi. Only Some Jat rulers Baghel Singh, Khushhal Singh Singhpuria, Tara Singh Ghaiba, Karam Singh Nirmala, Bhag Singh of Thanesar and Sahib Singh Virk Of Kandola, at the head of 10,000 horsemen stayed behind. They fixed their camp in Sabzi Mandi-Tis Hazari area. Baghel Singh took charge of octroi posts as well as the kotwali in Chandni Chauk. Five-eighths of the whole collection was daily deposited in the government treasury. Warren Hastings,the governor-general, recorded in a minute presented to his council : “While I was at. Lucknow, they (Sikhs) carried their depredations to the very suburbs of Delhi,where two of their officers actually reside in a quarter called Subzee Mundee, which is chiefly occupied by shroffs and shopkeepers, for the double purpose of levying their rauky (which is the name given to that species of contribution) andOf protecting the inhabitants from the marauders of their ownnation. “The first gurdwara was built at Teliwara in memory of Mata Sundari and Mata Sahib Devi, wives of Guru Gobind Singh. They had lived there for a time. The second gurdwara was erected in Jaisinghpura where Guru Hari Krishan had stayed. Four tombs were constructed on the bank of the Jamuna at the places of cremation of Guru Hari Krishan, Mata Sundari, Mata Sahib Devi, and Ajit Singh, the adopted son of Mata Sundari. A gurdwara was constructed there. There were two places connected with Guru Tegh Bahadur. One was at the Kotwali where the Guru was beheaded. The other wasat Rikabganj where his headless body was cremated by Lakhi Banjara. At both these places mosques had been built. In order to build. gurdwaras mosques had to be demolished.The Indian Muslims have been most sensitive with regard to.their mosques. But their fanaticism had grown weaker before the supremacy of the Sikhs. Earlier a small body of Jat sikhs under Sahib Singh Virk Kandola, a petty Sikh chief, visited Delhi. He was there on October 1, 1778. “This was the Dasahra day and the Sikhs riding out went to the Guru’s bungalow near Rikab Ganj, and there demolished a mosque and ravaged the cultivated fields.” The diarist further observed: Jahad in the path of Allah taught the Sikhs Jahad in the path of the Guru. On the departures of the Sikhs,the Muslims erected a mosque again. When Baghel Singh planned to pull down the mosque, the Muslims of the capital grew furious, and thousands of them gathered there to save the mosque. Baghel Singh asked the mob to send their representatives to discuss the matter with him. About one hundred Muslim leaders met him. He gave them a fortnight to declare their final decision. Till then the construction was stopped. He sent his agents to all the Cis-Satluj chiefs to be ready for an expedition, the details of which he would supply in a couple of days. He prepared a list of all the jagirs held by the Delhi Muslims in the Ganga Doab and in the region north of Delhi in the districts of Rohtak and Karnal. He marked certain sardars for certain areas. They entered those villages.and created a havoc. The leaders finding themselves in ruin waited on Baghel Singh individually and gave him in writing that they had no objection to the demolition of the mosque. A body of 2,000 one night wiped out the mosque at Rikabganj and laid the foundation of the gurdwara before sunrise. The building was soon raised. At the Kotwali a huge Muslim mob gathered to protect the mosque from demolition. The situation was grave. Baghel Singh did nottouch the mosque, and pulled down only a portion of the compound wall which obstructed the construction of the gurudwara. On its completion a Brahman Sikh was appointed Granth, and a jagir was assigned to it.? The sixth gurdwara was constructed at Majnun ka Tila where Guru Nanak with Mardana, Guru Hargobind and Ram Rae son of Guru Hari Rai had stayed. The seventh gurdwara was raised in Moti Baghwhere Guru Gobind Singh had lived. All these seven gurdwaras were constructed in eight months. The Emperor was pleased with his work. He granted him one-eighth of the Octroi duties of Delhi for life. Baghel Singh left Delhi in the beginning of December, 1783. The contemporary Khair-ud-din, secretary to a royal prince, calls him Raja.

References :-

  • Delhi Diarist, anonymous, in Delhi Chronicle, 311
  • History of Sikhs -Vol. IV ,The Sikh Commonwealth or Rise and Fall of Sikh Misls By Hari ram gupta.
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