Maharaja Ranjit Singh of Bharatpur was born at Deeg into a Sinsinwar Jat family, he was the youngest son of Maharaja Shri Brijendra Sawai Sujan Singh Bahadur alias Maharaja SurajMal, Maharja of Bharatpur, by his wife Maharani Sri Khet Kumari, his father Maharaja SurajMal successor was Maharaja Jawahar Singh of Bharatpur, he had no son, hence he was succeeded by his incapable, licentious and luxuriant brother Maharajkumar Rattan Singh. Maharaja Rattan Singh of Bharatpur was ultimately killed by a juggler at Mathura. His son Maharajkumar Kehri Singh died of smallpox in childhood. In the absence of any capable and powerful ruler, the inevitable result was a civil war and maladministration within the state. Conflict arose between two brothers of Maharaja Jawahar Singh of Bharatpur, i.e. Maharajkumar Nawal Singh and Maharajkumar Ranjit Singh. Nawal Singh was having indifferent health and he finally died in 28th March 1778, thereby clearing the way for Maharajkumar Ranjit Singh and he was and ascended the Gadi at the Gopal Bhawan, Deeg, 29th March 1778. These internal dissensions caused to the economic condition of the Kingdom to deteriorate. Later on 11th August 1775 he was Granted the title of “Farzand Jang Bahadur”, when Bharatpur wealth is not good Mirza Nazaf was attacked on Bharatpur and defeated Maharaja Ranjit Singh at Hathras. Ranjit Singh was exiled from the State and Maharani Kishori was left with the territory of Kumher having an yearly income of Rs. 7 Lakhs. But after the death of Mirza, the Moghuls in defiance of his decision attempted to capture Kumher also. Maharaja Ranjit Singh during his period of exile consolidated his strength, rallied against the Mughuls, gave them a crushing defeat and returned to Bharatpur victoriously of Chauth (1/4 of war benefits). He tended his diplomatic relation with the East India Company and also gained some more territory resulting in further amelioration of his position. After acquiring sufficient power, he discontinued the grant of Chauth to Marathas which resulted in strained relations between Marathas and Jats.

In 1802-03, in the war between the British and the Marathas, the latter were badly vanquished by the foreign forces under command of Lord Lake. The troops of Marathas under Yashwant Rao Holker fled away from the battle field and were chased by the British forces.They tried to seek shelter with Patiala, Jind, Faridkot, Nabha and other States, but none of these rulers had the courage to keep them in realisation of the consequences when the British forces were advancing with unabated vigour. Reluctantly the Marathas appealed to Bharatpur. The Jats greeted them with open arms. The Jats would not give up their traditional hospitality and courtesy even at the cost of their lives. Lord Lake advanced on Bharatpur inspite of the combined forces of Jats and Marathas. Due to heavy pressure from the enemy, the Jats had to evacuate Deeg for better defensive positions.But despite these circumstances, Lord Lake camped outside Bharatpur Fort for 7 months. He could not conquer Bharatpur due to which he had to return.And even after this, he tried to fight small and big wars 12 more times, but he was defeated.Later in early 1805,Lord Lake tried again and The siege proving fruitless for both sides, a new treaty of protection was signed, 17th April 1805.

Even though Maharaja Ranjit Singh had won, he still thought it best to eliminate Tanta. Because he was stuck in continuous wars for the last 6-7 years. There was also a deficit in the road fund. Therefore the discussion of the treaty was started. Lord Lake seems as if Lake got what he wanted. They agreed to make a treaty. Lord Lake greatly respected the people of Bharatpur State. In the end, both sides reached an agreement on the following conditions –

  1. The Deeg fort will remain with the British for a few days. If Maharaja of Bharatpur does not show hostility to the British then the fort of Deeg will be returned to him.
  2. The Maharaja of Bharatpur would not recruit any European employee into his army without the opinion of the British.
  3. He will give twenty lakh rupees to the British as expenses for this war.
  4. The Maharaja of Bharatpur and the British will consider each other’s friend and enemy as their friend and enemy.
  5. One of his sons will always remain in Delhi or Agra with British military officers in fulfillment of this treaty.
  6. Maharaja Ranjit Singh will be able to give this twenty lakh rupees in installments.
  7. The East India Company promises that when five lakh rupees are left to pay the last installment, it will waive the installment if the Government gets proof of Maharaja Saheb’s friendship.

This treaty was signed by Maharaja Ranjit Singh and Lord Lake and MaharajRanjit Singh of Bharatpur remained a friend of the British throughout his life. He followed the treaty completely. Bharatpur-War had not even completed a year when He died at Govardhan, 6th December 1805, He had four sons, the eldest being Maharajkumar Randhir Singh. He was installed on the throne.


  • Nandakumar, Sanish (2020). Rise and Fall of The Maratha Empire 1750-1818. Notion Press. p. 86.
  • Fortescue, John William (1902). A history of the British army, Volume 3
  • Ram Swarup Joon: History of the Jats, Rohtak, India (1938, 1967)
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