The battle of Kumher was fought among Jats, Marathas and Mughals.

Date :- 20 January 1754 – 18 May 1754

Location :- Kumher

Result :- Bharatpur Kingdom Victory

A peace treaty made between Jats and Marathas

Belligerents :- Bharatpur Kingdom Vs Maratha Empire

Maharaja Brijendra Sawai Suraj Mal Vs Mughal Empire Commanders and leaders, Khanderao Holkar, Raghunath rao and Alamgir II.

Strength :- 10,000 -15,000 Jats Vs 70,000- 80,000 combined forces of Marathas and Mughals.

Casualties :- Less High and Maratha Commander Khanderao Holkar died due to heavy artillery.


Kumher was founded by a Jat chieftain Raja kumbh. In 1754, when Maharaja Suraj Mal was the king, the fort was put under siege by Marathas as Peshwa Balaji Baji Rao younger brother Raghunath rao (Supported by Scindias and Holkars) wanted to be subservient to them. However the siege did not succeed. In 1754, on behest of Mughal Emperor Alamgir II, Khanderao laid the siege of Kumher fort of Maharaja Suraj Mal who had the sided with the Alamgir II’s adversary Sirajud-Daulah. Khanderao Holkar, son of Malhar Rao Holkar, was inspecting his troops on an open palanquin in the battle of kumher when he was hit and killed by a cannonball from the Bharatpur Kingdom army. Marathas (particularly Scindias and Holkars) signed a treaty with Maharaja Suraj Mal and withdrew their army. To honor Khanderao, Maharaja Suraj Mal built a chhatri on the cremation spot of Khanderao at Kumher.

References :-

  • “Maharaja Surajmal”.
  • “Suraj Mal – the Plato of the Jat Tribe”.
  • Entwistle, A. W. (1987). Braj: Centre of Krishna Pilgrimage (illustrated ed.). E. Forsten. p. 554.
  • Gupta, Pratik (2014). Maratha Generals and Personalities: A gist of great personalities of Marathas. Pratik gupta. p. 190.
  • Dabas, Bal Kishan (2001). The Political and Social History of the Jats. Sanjay Prakashan. p. 291.
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