Kalianwala

Information

Dynasty

Sandhu

Jagir

Kalianwala

Hindi Name

कलियावाला

Time Period

17th century to 1947

History

Chaudhary Jaimal Singh Of Kali Lakhu, grandfather Of Sirdar General Fateh Singh, was a Sandhu Jat, and the first of his family to adopt the Sikh faith. He was a resident of Kali Lakhu, near Amritsar. He was a follower of the Sukerchakia chiefs, Charat Singh and Mahan Singh, and with them was engaged in constant quarrels with the Chhatha tribe inhabiting the northern part of the Gujranwala district; and in one skirmish with some Chhatha marauders both his sons, Jai Singh and Jassa Singh, were slain. Fateh Singh entered the service of Bhatti Jat ruler Maharaja Ranjit Singh about 1798, and very rapidly rose in the favour of his master. He was a brave and skilfull soldier and proved himself as such in almost every campaign undertaken by the Maharaja till 1807. He fought against Ghulam Muhammad Khan Chhatha, against Jodh Singh of Wazirabad and Nadhan Singh Atu. He was with the Maharaja when he captured the city of Lahore, and whet, he took Amritsar from the Bhangis and the Ramgarhias with the aidof the Ahluwalia and Kanhaya Sardars. He tought in the Jhang andthe Pindi Bhatian campaigns; and it was in a great measure owing to his advice that Ranjit Singh did not espouse the cause of Raja Jaswant Rav Holkar against the British Government in 1805. Muchassisted by Fateh Singh’s good offices, peace was concluded between the English and Holkar who gave to the Sardar many valuable gifts in recognition of his services. Fateh Singh distinguished himself at the capture of Chiniot from Jassa Singh Bhangi, and when Jhang was taken in 1900 from Ahmad Khan Sial, the district was leased to Fateh Singh for Rs. 60,000 per annum. Ahmad Khan, however, soon after made a compromise with Fate Singh, who returned to Lahore. Towards the close of 1806 the Sardar was sent against Kasur, where Qutat-ud-din Khan was giving trouble. The Pathan chief held out bravely, but was glad to bur nft the Sikhs by the payment of a lakh of rupees. At the beginning of 1807, a Sikh army, under Ranjit Singh in person, again marched against Kasur, and after a long fight, reduced it. Fateh Singh promised to Qutab-ud-din the quiet possession of his estate at Mamdot if he would give up the Kasur fort; and although Ranjit Singh did not approve of the promise, jet he considered himself bound to confirm it. Beneath the banner of Fateh Singh, many of his chief Sikh Jat barons were proud to fight. Among others were Amir Singh Sandhawalia Of Raja Sansi, Dal Singh Naherna, Dhana Singh Of Malwai, Fateh Singh Matu and Uttam Singh Chhachhi. In 1807 Ranjit Singh, returning from Patiala, besieged the fort of Narayangarh held by Sardar Kishan Singh. For fifteen days it held out; and the Maharaja became very impatient at the delay, and told Fateh Singh, who was in immediate command, that he was found of remaining by him (the Maharaja) than of leading the troups in the field. Fateh Singh, piqued at this, assaulted the fort; but was repulsed and mortally wounded. Ranjit Singh came to visit him in his tent, and Fateh Singh is said to have advised the Maharaja never to raise anotherJat to the highest office in the State. Whether such advice was ever given is doubtful, but the Maharaja appeared to act upon some such principle; for while his bravest officers and generals were Jat, in the Council he rather gave his confidence to Brahmans, Rajputs and even Muhammadans. Fateh Singh left no son, and Ranjit Singh might have resume dall his jagirs; but, feeling some remorse for the Sardar’s death, he sent Mit Singh Padhania, on his arrival at Amritsar, with a valuable khilat to Mai Sewan, the widow, and bade him tell her that any one whom she should nominate as her husband’s heir and successor would be recognized. There were several chiefs well loved by Fateh Singh, and none more so than Dhana Singh Malwai and Dul Sigh Naherna. The latter was his potrela (godson) and a great favourite. But for the succession to Fateh Singh’s estate, Dal Singh is said neither to have trusted to fortune nor to favour. On the night of Mit Singh’s arrival at Kali, Dal Singh paid him a private visit, and tor Rs. 5,000 Mit Singh told Mai Sewan that, although she might nominate whom she pleased, Ranjit Singh would be only pleased with Dal Singh; and he was accordingly selected. Not with standing the generosity of Ranjit Singh on this occasion, there were not wanting many who said that the jagirs had been given to Dal Singh as a thank-offering for the death of Fateh Singh; that Ranjit Singh had long feared the chief, and that he dared him to assault Narayangarh, through an impracticable breach, in the hope of his death.On one occasion, at Wazirabad, Ranjit Singh told Fateh Singh to draw his forces on one side that he might see how numerous they were. When the order was given the whole army went over to the great Kalianwala chief, and Ranjit Singh, to his rage and chagrin. found himself almost deserted. He never forgot the incident, or forgave the chief who had too much influence with the army. Dal Singh Naherna’s family originally resided at Karial, in Sheikhupura, and is of the naherna or barber (or, more properly, nail-cutter) caste. It is stated that an ancestor, a Virk-Jat ruler, fell in love and eloped with one Rami, the daughter of Duni Chand of the Jandi Naherna tribe, and that the name Naherna has been ever since attached to the family. But this is i fiction, and has only been invented since the family rose to importance. Dal Singh was not of Jat descent. Sahib Singh Naherna was the associate of Bhagwan Singh, and became known as a bold and successful robber. When Charat Singh became powerful, both Sahib Singh and Bhagwan Singh joined him; aud when he had conquered the country about Pind Dadan Khan, Bhagwan Singh claimed a third share. This, Charat Singh did not fancy giving,and believing that he could trust Sahib Singh he resolved to get rid of his troublesome ally. Soon after, the three men went on a hunting expedition, and a wild boar happening to rum past, Charat Singh cried aloud” Don’t let the beast escape.”*Sahib Singh, who well understood the meaning of these words shot Bhagwan Singh dead. For this service he was rewarded with a jagir. Both his son, Hakumat Singh, and his grandson, Kaur Singh, were in the service of the Sukerchakia chief, but they were not men of any note. Sardar Dal Singh was a bold and able man, and was a great favourite with Sardar Fateh Singh Kalianwala, under whose orders. he used to fight. At the time of Fateh Singh’s death, Dal Singh haila Jagir of about Rs. 68,000 ; but when the Kalianwala Jagirs, with the exception of Rs. 70,000 settled on Mai Sewan and the children of Fateh Singh’s daughter were made over to him, his estates were worth about Rs. 3,50,000. Most of the Sardars who had fought under Fateh Singh were now led by Dal Singh; and the barber showed himself as brave-in battle as the best of the Jat aristocracy. He served with honour in the Kasur, Multan, Kashmir and Dera Ismail Khan campaigns. In 1814 he was sent, with Ram Dayal, grandson of Diwan Mohkam Chand, in command of a detachment of ten thousand men, to force their way into Kashmir by way of Nandan Sar, while Ranjit Singh himself proceeded by way of Punch. This detachment was surrounded and out numbered, and it was only on account of the friendship entertained for Diwan Mohkam Chand by Aim Khan that he was allowed to return unmolested. In the spring of 1815, again in company with Ram Dayal, he ravaged the Multan and Bahawalpur territories, exacting fines and contributions from every town; and later in the year he was sent against the Bhimbar and Rajauri chiefs. He reduced them to submission, and burnt a large portion of the city of Rajaur. He died in 1823, according to his family, of cholera; but the commonly received store is that he took poison after having been severely rebuked by the Maharaja for the inefficient state of his contingent. He was succeeded in his jagir by his eldest son, Atar Singh. In 1834 Atar Singh was sent to Peshawar under the command of Prince Nau Nihal Singh. While there, Diwan Hakim Rai, who was the Camber lain of the Prince and a great favourite, induced some of the Sardars, who had been accustomed to fight under the command Atar Singh, to go over to him with their troops. On this Atar Singh left the army without leave, and came to Lahore to complain to the Maharaja. He was not well received, and was ordered to re- Join the army, then in Bannu, without delay. Atar Singh refused; and the Maharaja confiscated all his jagirs, with the exception of the family estate of Kala, worth Rs. 3,500, and Hamirpur, worth Rs 750. Thus it remained till the death of Ranjit Singh. His successor, Kharak Singh,restored Rs. 12,750, free of service; and Maharaja Sher Singh, on there turn of Atar Singh from the Ganges, where he had conveyed the ashes of Maharaja Kharak Singh, and Prince Nao Nihal Singh, gave him, at Pindi Gheb and Mirowal, jagirs valued at Rs. 1,02,000; this was subject to the service of two hundred horse, and included a grant of Rs. 2,000 to his son, Lal Singh. Atar Singh was made Adalti (Chief Justice) of Lahore and the surrounding districts, aud receired command of the Pindiwala irregular caralry, which had been tirst raised by Milka Singh Pindiwala. No change took place in his jagir till Jawahir Singh became Tazir, when Atar Singh represented that Pindi Gheb. though nominally worth Rs. 65,000, oulysielded Rs. 50,000, and obtained in exchange the ilagas of Chunian, Dhundianwali and Khudian, worth Rs. 60,000. After the murder of Prince Peshawra Singh by Jawahir Singh’s orders, the army, enraged at the conduct of the Wazir, determined upon his death, and threw off their allegiance to the Lahore Government. Sardar Atar Singh was, on the 19th September, sent by Maharani Jindan Kaur, with Diwan Dina Nath and Fakir Nur-ud-din, to the camp at Mian Mirto induce the mutinous troops to return to their duty. No attention was, however, paid to their advice; the Fakir was dismissed, but the Diwan and Atar Singh were insulted, abused, and confined in camp till after the murder of the Wazir, on the 22nd September, when the army, always afraid of the Rani, sent them to Lahore to try and make their peace. Sardar Atar Singh served throughout the Sutlej campaign of 1845-46 and at the battle of Feroze shah his brother Chatar Singh was killed. In September, 1846, Atar Singh was ordered to join the Sikh army proceeding to Kashmir to suppress the rebellion there; but he took no notice of repeated injunctions, remaining at his house, near Amritsar, on preteuce of celebrating the marriage of his niece. For this conduct his jagir was confiscated. Shortly afterwards, however, it was restored to him and made up to Rs. 1,11,800. He received a seat in the Council of Regency appointed in December, 1846, and held this post till the annexation of the Punjab. On the first news of the outbreak at Multan in April, 1848, he was ordered to proceed thither in command of all the available irregular troops. He was recalled, with the other Sardars, when the Resident at Lahore found that it was considered inexpedient to send a European force to Multan at that time of the year ; but later he accompanied Raja Sher Singh to Multan in command of the cavalry. The Sardar had little influence over the troops which he commanded. He was of a weak and vacillating character; and although his own intentions were good, he was quite unable to keep his men to their duty. Day by day they grew more and more mutinous, and deserted in numbers to the rebel Mul Raj in Multan.

At length it was agreed by the three Sikh Generals, Raja Sher Singh, Sardar Shamsher Singh , Sardar Atar Singh, in concert with Major Edwardes, and with the concurrence of the English General, that the only thing to do was move the troops out of temptation, away from Multan. Sardar Atar Singh’ division was to be posted at Talamba under pretence of keeping open the road; but before the movement could be executed the whole Sikh army rebelled and, being joined by Raja Sher Singh, marched to Multan. Sardar Atar Singh mounted his horse and ted to the camp of Major Edwardes with a few horsemen. His son, Lal Singh, was carried off by the troops, but soon afterwards contrived to male his escape and joined Edwardes also. Lal Singh had in June, 1847, been sent in command of five hundred sowars to Hassan Abdal, and had remained there till the 3rd of May, 1848, when he received an order to join the force of Raja Sher Singh on its way to Multan When Diwan Kishan Kaur, Adalti of Batala, joined the rebels, Sardar Lal Singh was appointed to succeed him, and he beld the appointment for about three months till the close of the Sikh administration. On annexation all the personal jagirs of Sardar Atar Singh,amounting to Rs. 47,750, were maintained for life; one quarter descend to his son Lal Singh and his male heirs in perpetuity. The jagir of Sardar Lal Singh worth Rs. 8,600 being a recent grant of 1848, was resumed; but he was assigned a cash allowance of Rs. 4,800 from the Jagir of his father, with whom he was at feud. Sardar Atar Singh died in December, 1851, and three four this of his Jagir was resumed.

The share of his son, Lal Singh, was, in February, 1862, raised to Re. 15,000, which is continued in perpetuity. Lal Singh resided at Kala in the Amritsar district, where he died in 1888. For many years he had taken no active part in public affairs beyond sitting as a member of the committee of Maharaja Ranjit Singh’s Samadhi at Lahore. He was a splendid specimen of an old Sikh Jat Sardar, and to the last was fond of hawking, hunting and other field sports. He had been married four times, but had no children. He adopted his nephew, Gulzar Singh, to whom, on the special recommendation of Sir Charles Aitchison, the Government of India continued the jagir of Rs. 15,000 in perpetuity. Sardar Gulzar Singh was privately educated and resided at Kala. He was an Honorary Magistrate and a Provincial Darbari. In addition to the jagir he held other property in land and houses. On his death in 1929, the family jagir was inherited by his grandson, Gursharn Singh, son of Sardar Balwant Singh, the latter having died in 1927. Gursharn Singh is still a minor and his uncle, Sardar Iqbal Singh, is acting as his guardian. Narindarjit Singh, youngest son of Sardar Gular Singh, has joined the army.

Genealogy

  • Chaudhary Salabi Singh
    • Chaudhary Sahib Singh
      • Sirdar Hakumat Singh
        • Sirdar Kaur Singh
          • Sirdar Dal Singh (d.1823)
            • Sirdar Atar Singh (d.1851)
              • Sirdar Lal Singh (d.1888)
                • Sardar Gulzar Singh (d.1929)
                  • Sirdar Balwant Singh (d.1927)
                    • Sirdar Gursharan Singh (b.1923)
                  • Sirdar Iqbal Singh (b.1899)
                    • Sirdar Rajinder Singh
                    • Sirdar Mohinder Singh (d.1934)
                    • Sirdar Trilochan Singh (d.1929)
                  • Sirdar Dalip Singh
                  • Sirdar Rajwant Singh (d. 1926)
                  • Sirdar Narinderjit Singh (b.1912)
                    • Sirdar Harsharan Singh (b.1929)
                    • Sirdar Tajwant Singh ( b.1935)
            • Sirdar Chatar Singh (d.1845)
            • Sirdar Jawala Singh
            • Sirdar Chet Singh
            • Sirdar Ram Singh
  • Chaudhary Jaimal Singh , Jagirdar Of Kali Lakhu
    • Sirdar Jassa Singh
      • General Sirdar Fateh Singh (d.1807)
    • Sirdar Jai Singh


Source :-
  • Chiefs and Families of Note In Punjab – L.H Griffin.

Personality

Sardar Lal Singh Of Kalianwala

Sardar Lal Singh Of Kalianwala , was born in 1823 into a Sandhu Jat family,He had been detained by the rebellious Sikh Army at Multan. Later, he commanded five hundred men of cavalry at Hasan…

Atar Singh kalianwala

ATAR SINGH KALIANWALA (d. 1851), was soldier and feudatory chief During Sikh Empire, He was son of Sandhu Jat Jagirdar Sardar Dal Singh of Naherna, a military commander under Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Atar Singh`s ancestors…

Fateh Singh Kalianwala

FATEH SINGH KALIANWALA (d. 1807), military commander and jagirdar under Maharaja Ranjit Singh, was the son of Sardar Jassa Singh and grandson of Chaudhari Jaimal Singh. Chaudhari Jaimal Singh was a Sandhu Jatt and the…

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