Maharaja Jawahar Singh of Bharatpur, was born at Deeg, he was the eldest son of Maharaja Shri Brijendra Sawai Sujanji Singh Bahadur alais Maharaja Suraj Mal, the Maharaja of Bharatpur, by his wife, Maharani Sri Ganga Devi, when he was young he was adopted by Maharani Kishori , He was the 22nd direct descendant of Thakur Sobha Singh of Bayana, who founded Sinsini in 12th century by defeating native Kalals, During Ahmed Shah Abdali’s invasion of India in 1757, Abdali attacked Ballabhgarh. In a battle between Durranis and Prince Jawahar Singh, the Jats managed to captured 150 Durrani horses. Jawahar Singh had to escape from the fort in the night as the defence of the fort was not possible in the face of heavy bombardments of Abdali’s guns. After taking the city Abdali sent his generals Jahan Khan and Najib Khan with 20,000 men to attack the Jat territory and holy city of Mathura. According to historian Jadunath Sarkar, the Marathas fled from the north and not a single Maratha soldier fought for the holy city of Mathura which had the holiest of Vaishnav shrines, their “Hindupat-Padshahi” didn’t involve any duty to protect it. But the Jats were determined to defend this sacred city. Jawahar Singh and Thakur Shyam Singh Kuntal of Sonkh with 6,000 men blocked the path of the Afghans. Jats faced Afghans in Chaumuhan, in the fight that followed the Jat cavalry charged the Afghan positions and almost seven to nine thousand men of Durranis were killed by Jat troops and the remnants of the Jat army had to retreat. Afghans subsequently carried out a general massacre in the unfortified city of Mathura. The people were looted, their property plundered and acts of iconoclasm followed.

Commander of the Jat armies in the campaigns of his father. Rebelled against his father in 1756 but was easily pacified. Succeeded on the death of his father, 25th December 1763. Ascended the gadi at the Gopal Bhavan, Deeg, 1st January 1764, after having successfully defeated his rebellious brother Raja Nahar Singh. Invaded the Imperial territories and sacked Delhi in 1764 with the help of his Sikh allies, as retaliation for the killing of his father, Maharaja Suraj Mal. Greatly extended the Jat territories, which stretched from as far as Agra, to within a few hundred yards of the Imperial capital itself.

Campaign against Malhar Rao Holkar :-
Maharaja Jawahar Singh was annoyed with the treacherous behavior of Malhar Rao Holkar during the Seige of Delhi, 1764 as Holkar wanted to gain money from both sides (Jats and Rohilas), and sources also inform us that Holkar was secretly in-contact with Najib-ud-daula against Maharaja Jawahar Singh. Another reason to wage a war against Holkar was that Marathas and Holkar had tried to help his brother Raja Nahar Singh of Dholpur. This made Jawahar Singh to take actions against Marathas.

Both sides came infront of each other and a pitched battle was fought between the Sikh troops (hired by Jawahar Singh) and Marathas under Holkar on 13 and 14 March 1766 near Dholpur. In this battle Marathas was beaten back by Jat and Sikh troops of Jatsikh Misaldars of Punjab. The fleeing Maratha forces of Holkar were chased by Jat troops. The city of Dholpur was taken by the Jats and many Maratha generals were captured, the Maratha army of 14,000 scattered and many of the troops were killed. Malhar Rao Holkar was thus defeated by Maharaja Jawahar Singh in Battle of Dholpur.

Bundelkhand Campaign :-

Maharaja Jawahar Singh of Bharatpur planned to expand his kingdom on the side of Bundelkhand and Northern Malwa.
Maharaja started his campaign in June 1767 by capturing Bhadarwar region from Marathas and BhadoriyaRajputs. After setting his camp at Lahar, he sent his army to plunder Rampura (under ChundawatRajputs who were tributaries to Marathas). The Jat army defeated the Maratha forces at Rampura and further moved to Ayaman fort, it’s Maratha chief became frightened by the Jat invasion. He fled from there and went to the shelter of Gaur Rajput chief of Indurkhi. The fortress was captured and the nearby area was plundered by Jats.

The enthusiasm of the young Maharaja increased greatly due to these victories. Therefore, during the days of heavy rains (July 11, 1767 AD), he attacked Bhind and Ater and captured them also by defeating combined Rajput-Maratha army.The Rajput chief Himmat Singh Bhadoriya was taken prisoner to Bharatpur. Till now these states used to pay Khandani (state tax) to the Marathas. Now they would pay to Maharaja Jawahar Singh. Now he marched towards Samthar via Muravali to take over other areas with great speed, but at the same time he got the news that the people of Rampura had revolted, then the conquest of Samthar was postponed and the Jats headed towards JavarParavara village. On July 13, 1767, Jats went towards Rampura. It was surrounded. After some time, the people of Rampur agreed to accept the sovereignty of the Jats.

Maharaja’s army moved towards the Kalpi area, where it’s Maratha officer BalajiGovindKhair wanted to prevent disturbance and plunder. He sent Krishnaji-pant to Maharaja Jawahar Singh with an offer of Rs. 3 lakhs, if he would spare Maratha territory in Bundelkhand. But the Jats did not concede to his offer. Maharaja took control of the march and attacked BalajiGovind. All Maratha chiefs fled, and Govind’s with his children fled to Raipur (Jalaun). Govindmaratha then crossed the Betwa river and took refugee. Maharaja now, moved further and established his dominance in Jalaun.

On August 14, 1767, Maharaja Jawahar Singh received a request from the Khichi Rajput chief of Raghogarh to help free his kingdom from the Marathas. However, he rejected the request and returned to the north. He, then won the Maratha police station of Jigani by defeating GobindSabharam and joined the Jat kings of Gohad and Pichorre. These victories of Maharaja led to a problem for the Peshwa in Poona, who wanted to maintain Maratha power in the north. In September 1767, the Maratha officers on the orders of Peshwa made a treaty with Jawahar Singh. After this treaty, Maharaja gained Jigani and Jatalwarparganas of Vitthal rao Tavardhar and parganas of Sikarwar which belonged to MahadajiKasi. Thereafter. Maharaja crossed Chambal and returned to Bharatpur.

Thus, after taking the entire region of Kalpi- Jalaun under his control, Maharaja Jawahar Singh set out and reached Samthar from there. Gujjar chief of Samthar readily accepted the submission and promised to give him 20-25 thousand rupees to Maharaja , Maharaja also collected taxes from the Bundela Rajput chiefs of Datia and Narwar.Thereafter, around the first week of August, 1767 AD. he moved towards Narwar. Thus, in the words of a Maratha correspondent “every place in Kalpi province- Kachhavadhar. Bhadawar, Tanvardhar, Sikarwar, Dandroli, Khitoli and Shraddha areas was captured by the Jats (Jawahar Singh). And just Jhansi itself was the center of our (Marathas) and Gwalior have remained in reverence.

The Pushkar bath by Maharani Kishori :-

Maharani Kishori, wife of Maharaja Suraj Mal, who had adopted Jawahar Singh, was adept at politics and diplomacy, Maharani Kishori expressed her desire to her son that she wanted to go for a sacred bath at Pushkar. Jawahar Singh pointed out that Pushkar was situated in the territory of his foe, Raja Madho Singh, who would not tolerate her arrival at Pushkar with a large retinue, and advised her that if at all she were keen to go for Pushkar bath, she would go with only a few followers and Rupa Ram the Purohit.

Jawahar Singh marched to Pushkar with 60,000 Cavalry, 1 lakh Infantry and 200 guns. With fluttering banners and beating drums they entered Jaipur territory and set up an impressive camp in the Sandy plains of Pushkar. After the bathing ceremony, Maharani Kishori was weighed in gold, which was given in charity. The other Ranis who had come on this occasion felt humiliated because they were not in a position to match the charity of Maharani Kishori. The Rajput vanity was hurt.

War with Raja Madho Singh of Jaipur :-

Jawahar Singh made the big mistake of leaving Pratap Singh of Machheri, the rebel noble of Jaipur, for the defence of Bharatpur. He had provided him shelter in his realms during the hour of crises in the latter’s life and considered Partap Singh to be a reliable man. But his faith proved misplaced as the Rao Raja proved traitor. When Jawahar Singh was at Pushkar, he left Bharatpur and joined the camp of Madho Singh. Rather he instigated Madho Singh to take action against Jawahar Singh.

All the Rajput rulers assembled at Pushkar and held a conference in which no Jat rulers were invited. Raja Madho Singh said in this conference that the Jat ruler had injured the vanity of all the Rajputs. It was here that a witty Marwari, Raja Vijay Singh pointed out that after all the Jats were also Hindus and if they donated liberally on this auspicious occasion according to their financial position, it must not be taken as humiliation by Rajputs. Madho Singh, however, rejected this advice and appealed for war. The decision of this conference soon reached Jawahar Singh. He was expecting it.

Madho Singh laid on ambush in a valley to intercept Jawahar Singh on his return. Jawahar Singh had anticipated this and took the alternative route via TurnaWati, which was a bottleneck Surrounded by hills. The column of troops with cavalry and artillery was marching under the leadership of Captain Samru.

The palanquins of the Ranis were escorted by Jawahar Singh in the rear of the column. All of a sudden Rajputs attacked them from three sides. It was a fierce battle, in which the Rajputs suffered great losses. In the battle, it was found that only 11 tender aged members were left in the family of Raja Madho Singh. The rest lost their lives.

It is said that 25,000 casualties occurred in this battle. Jawahar Singh reached Bharatpur. Both of Jats and Rajputs claimed themselves victorious in this battle, but apparently the loss did not have much of a repercussion on the strength of Jats, He was assassinated by one of his favourite soldiers (swallowing poison) in at Agra Fort, 27th August August 1768.


  • Bharatpur Upto 1826: A Social and Political History of the Jats by Ram Pande.
  • Dwivedi, Girish Chandra; Prasad, Ishwari (1989). The Jats, their role in the Mughal Empire. Arnold Publishers. p. 238.
  • Sarkar, Jadunath (1950). Fall of the Mughal Empire, volume 2. p. 453.
  • Meena, R. P. RPSC RAS Prelims: History of Rajasthan Complete Study Notes With MCQ. New Era Publication.
  • Dwivedi, Girish Chandra; Prasad, Ishwari (1989). The Jats, Their Role in the Mughal Empire.
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