Maharaja Surajmal also know as Maharaja Sujan Singh or Maharaja Brijendra Sawai SurajMal was born on 13 February 1707. This is the same date in history on the day when Aurangzeb died. Maharaja Surajmal is taken with great pride among the kings who have a special place in north India for giving a befitting reply to the invasion of the Mughals.

Ancestors and his family –

He was the son of Raja Badan Singh Of Deeg and 21st direct descendants of Thakur Sobha ,who was founder of Sinsini in 12th century. Maharaja Surajmal was a skilled administrator, visionary, and a wealthy emperor of diplomacy.He has been described by a contemporary historian as “the Plato of Jats” and by a modern writer as the “Asia Ulysses”, because of his political sagacity, steady intellect and clear vision. He was one of the greatest warriors and ablest statesmen ever born in India.

His Brothers –

Raja Badan Singh had 16 sons. Each of the sons got jagirs and princely state at different places –

  • Yuvraj Sujan Singh , Yuvraj SurajMal (see Bharatpur)
  • Raja Pratap Singh Bahadur of Weir, given the principality of Weir by his father and the titles of ‘Raja’ and ‘Bahadur’, married and left issue. (see Weir)
  • Thakur Akhai Singh of Akhaigarh, giventhe jagir of Name by his father, founded the town of Akhaigarh after his name, married and left issue. ( See – Akhaigarh)
  • Thakur Ram Kishen of Mahloni
  • Thakur Guman Singh of Gadoli
  • Thakur Kushal Singh of Agahwali
  • Thakur Lal Singh of Suhans
  • Thakur Dalel Singh of Ashtawan
  • Thakur Bhawani Singh of Senthari
  • Thakur Umed Singh of Nuh Bachamandi
  • Thakur Jodh Singh of Bajoli
  • Thakur Devi Singh of Peepali
  • Thakur Bir Narayan Singh of Bansi
  • Thakur Ram bal Singh of Khatka
  • Thakur Sabha Ram Singh of Hasanpur
  • Thakur Surat Singh of Khohra
  • Thakur Man Singh of Gadoli(shared Guman Singh)

Military Career of Maharaja Surajmal

Founder Of Bharatpur :-

The first of his ancestors was Jagirdar OfSinsini from the 14th century to 1676.then Sinsini was Independent Principality 1676 to 1722.then during the Maharaja Surajmal’s father Raja Badan Singh he was the ruler of Deeg. After this In 1732 Yuvraj Surajmal defeated Sogarwar Jat ruler Raja Khemkaran Singh and established the princely state of Bharatpur in 1733. And Bharatpur was named after Lakshmana’s brother Bharata.

Chandaus War 1746 :-

Chandaus War was in important event in the career of Maharaja Suraj Mal. Chandaus town is in Aligarh district. In 1745, the Delhi Mughal Badsah Muhammad Shah became angry with Nawab Fateh Ali Khan of koīl (Aligarh), so to punish him Badsah sent an Afghan Chieftain Asad Khan. Fateh Ali Khan expected loss and insult in war with Asad Khan, so he sought help of Maharaja Suraj Mal. In the month of november 1745, hardly a month had passed for Suraj Mal and it was his first opportunity to take independent decisions in matters of external political and army affairs. Suraj Mal assured Fateh Ali Kha to help and sent an army under command of his son and later he himself moved to koīl (Aligarh). When Asad Khan attacked koīl (Aligarh) in early 1746, war took place at Chandaus in which Asad Khan was killed and the royal army was defeated. Thus with the active help and strength of Suraj Mal, Fateh Khan could save his jagir. This war helped in increasing the power of Bharatpur Kingdom

Battle of Bagru 20 August 1748 :-

He had a good relationship with Maharaja Jai Singh of the princely state of Jaipur. After the death of Jaisingh, his sons Ishwari Singh and Madho Singh started fighting over the princely status as the heirs.Surajmal wanted to make the elder son Ishwari Singh the next heir of the princely state, while Maharana Jagat Singh of Udaipur state was in favor of making the younger son Madho Singh the King.
In the event of this difference, the fight over the throne started. Ishwari Singh won the struggle in March 1747. The battle did not completely end here.Madho Singh returned to the battlefield with the Marathas, Rathores, andSisodiaKings of Udaipur. In such an environment, king Surajmal reached the battlefield with 10,000soldiers to support Ishwari Singh.
In this war, Ishwari Singh was victorious and he got the royal text of Jaipur. After this battle, the dunk of Maharaja Surajmal started ringing all over India.

Treaty with Mir Bakshi (1st January 1750) :-

Delhi BadsahaBadsah was worried by the rising power of Jats of Bharatpur, as Jats had occupied Faridabad. Ahmadshah gave the Jagir of Faridabad to wajir Safdar Jang. The new wajir advised Balram Singh, who had occupied Palwal and Faridabad paraganas and Suraj Mal to leave the shahi parganas but they ignored it. At the same time Mir Bakshi Salabat Khan also left for the Marwar expedition. In November 1749, Safdar Jang and Mir Bakshi planned to attack Maharaja Suraj Mal from different directions and sent a message to Suraj Mal to leave Faridabad for them. Suraj Mal was not moved by this proposal. Wajir Safdar Jang thought it wastage of time and money to do war with Maharaja Suraj Mal, so he decided to be friendly with Maharaja Suraj Mal. They wanted help of Suraj Mal to defeat Farrukhabad’s Vangash Pathan. Suraj Mal assured them to help and got faujdari of Mathura in exchange.
Mir Bakshi attacked Mewat to destroy Nimrana fort of Suraj Mal and occupied it on 30 December 1749. After this Mir Bakshi moved to Agra rather than Narnaul and stayed near Saray Shobh Chand. On 1 January 1750 Suraj Mal could know the objective of Mir Bakshi Salabat Khan, so he moved towards his camp. The army of Suraj Mal with 5000 Jat soldiers seized the army of Mir Bakshi. The Gohad ruler, Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana, with 200 sawars also joined him. Hakim Khan and Rustam Khan along with many mughal soldiers were badly killed. The supply of water, food and other communications were blocked and Mir Bakshi was forced to do the treaty with Maharaja Suraj Mal.
Mir Bakshi Salabat Khan signed the following treaty with Suraj Mal through Fateh Ali Khan:-

  1. No person of Mir Bakshi will cut people tree in their country.
  2. No temple in this area will be insulted and no objection will be raised regarding worship oh Hindus.
  3. Shuraj Mal took the responsibility that he would get Rs 15 lakh peshkash from Rajputs of Ajmer Subah. Provided Mir Bakshi takes oath that he would not cross Narnaul.

After this on 1 January 1750 Maharaja Surajmal crushed the Mughal army of Salabat Khan and forced the latter to accept all his terms.Later during the civil war among the Mughal Maharaja Surajmal plundered old Delhi in support of Safdar Jung.

Capture of Delhi (10 May 1753) :-

Maharaja Suraj Mal fortified the city by building a massive wall around the city. He started living in Bharatpur in year 1753. Maharaja Suraj Mal attacked Delhi on May 9, 1753. He defeated Nawab of Delhi Ghazi-ud-din (second) on May 10, 1753 and captured Delhi. The attack of Jats in Old Delhi and nearby areas frightened the people and started running to New Delhi for the protection of life and property. The army of Badsah could not protect them. On 13 May samrat removed Safdarjang from the post of wajid and appointed Intijam as new wajid along with Imad as Mirbakshi. On the advise of Suraj Mal Safdarjang, in counter action, appointed Akbar Ādilshāh, said to be grandson of Kāmbaksh, as samrat of Delhi. On 14 May Jats sacked Chārbāg, Bāg-e-kultāt and Hakīm Munīm Bridge. They sacked Jaisinghpura on 15 May and burnt many areas. On 16 May Jats attacked Delhi ferociously and defeated Sādil Khan and Raja Devidatta in a severe war. On 17 May their army could capture Firojshah Kotla. In a severe war with Ruhelas Najib was wounded and 400 Ruhela soldiers were killed.
The Nawab of Delhi, in revenge of the defeat, instigated Marathas to attack Maharaja Suraj Mal. The Marathas laid siege over the Kumher fort on January 1, 1754. Suraj Mal fought with bravery and gave strong resistance. The Marathas could not conquer the Kumher fort, but they had to pay the price of this attack in the form of the death of Khanderao Holkar, son of Maratha Sardar Malharrao. After some time the Marathas made a treaty with Maharaja Surajmal.
At that time, Hindu Jat power was at its peak due to the status of Maharaja Surajmal. The Mughal and Marathas took strategic assistance from Surajmal on many occasions.
Later, due to some estrangement, Maharaja Surajmal’s relations with Maratha Sardar Sadashiv Bahu deteriorated.
By 1756 Surajmal had established himself as an efficient and visionary leader. He was considered the most powerful king at the time who not only had enormous wealth but also had a vast kingdom. According to Sayyid Ghulam Hussain :-

“ MaharajaSuraj Mal was the eye and the shining taper of the Jat tribe a prince who rendered himself famous by his good manners and civil deportment as well as by his conquests and his superior knowledge in the arts of government”.

Maharaja Surajmal and Jats in Third Battle of Panipat :-

In the third battle of Panipat, the Marathas fought against Ahmad Shah Abdali. The Maratha leader i.e. Sadashivrao Bhau was able to form an alliance with the charismatic Jat leader Maharaja Surajmal. But soon a discord occurred between the two and Bhau rejected the advice of Surajmal on the conduct of the war against Abdali.

“ Maharaja Surajmal suggested that heavy baggage, artillery, and the family members (non-combatants) are not necessary for war. He suggested that family members especially women should be stationed at Jhansi for better communication with the allied Marathas there. ”

Thousands of Maratha warriors sacrificed their lives in this war. The logistics of the Marathas were also exhausted.

If the relations of the Marathas had not deteriorated with Maharaja Surajmal, they would not have had this condition in this war. Despite this, Maharaja Surajmal, showing his humanity made arrangements for medical and food for the injured Maratha soldiers. Maharaja Surajmal was aware of the fact that this behaviour of generosity will trigger Abdali and the latter surely attack his territory next. But proud Jat king didn’t pay any attention to these believes and did everything he could to help the retreating Marathas. Along with this, Maharaja Surajmal gave refuge to Maratha women for 6 months in his Deeg Fort. Maharaja Surajmal and his wife Maharani Kishori Devi sent their soldiers with them to safely reach Maharashtra.

Abdali’s Campaign Against Jats :-

The Marathas were defeated by Afghan armies at the Third Battle of Panipat and a hundred thousand Maratha survivors reached Suraj Mal’s territory while returning south, sans arms, sans clothes and sans food. Maharaja Suraj Mal and Maharani Kishori received them with tender warmth and hospitality, giving free rations to every Maratha solder or camp follower. The wounded were taken care of till they were fit to travel. Thus, Maharaja Suraj Mal spent no less than three million rupees on their sick and wounded guests.

After the defeat of Marathas in war with Ahmadshah Abdali, the treatment given to the Marathas by Bharatpur Kingdom angered Abdali. Abdali demanded Rupees One crore from Maharaja Suraj Mal as a penalty for helping his enemies. Suraj Mal was not ready to give this huge amount to Abdali and make him more powerful, so he decided to have war with Abdali.

On 2 February 1760, Abdali moved to Bharatpur against Maharaja Suraj Mal and seized Deeg fort on 2 February 1760. Suraj Mal played a trick. One group of Maratha forces was sent to Rewadi, another towards Bahadurgarh and third group of Jat force was sent towards Aligarh. Jat Army looted Aligarh on 17 March 1760 and destroyed its fort. Abdali was forced to remove the capture of Deeg fort. He followed Marathas through Mewat. Holkar had also become friendly to Maharaja Suraj Mal. Holkar was defeated at Sikandra and came to Bharatpur for refuge.

Capture of Agra Fort (12 June 1761) :-

Agra was the richest town during those. Maharaja Suraj Mal decided to capture Agra fort to re-establish his influence in doab region. On 3 may 1761 the Jat army of Maharaja Suraj Mal with 4000 Jat soldiers reached Agra under the command of Balram Singh and gave the massage of Maharaja Suraj Mal to the kiledar (incharge) of Agra fort that the army wants to cross Jamuna and needs camping place. The kiledar gave the sanction for camping. Meanwhile the Jat army started entering the fort, which was resisted by the guards in which 200 people died. Jat army started war from Jamamasjid. During this period Maharaja Suraj Mal stayed at Mathura to observe the situations. On 24 May 1761 Maharaja Suraj Mal along with Imād and Gangadhar Tantya moved from Mathura, crossed Jamuna and reached Aligarh. From Aligarh his army moved and captured the areas of Jat ruler koīl and Jalesar. They reached Agra to help his army at Agra in the first week of June. Maharaja Suraj Mal arrested the family members of the guards staying in Agra town and pressurized the guards of fort for surrender. At last the kiledar agreed to surrender by receiving a bribe of Rs 1 lakh and jagir of five villages. Thus after a seize of one month Maharaja Suraj Mal captured Agra Fort on 12 June 1761 and it remained in the possession of Bharatpur rulers till 1774.

After Maharaja Suraj Mal, Maharaja Jawahar Singh, Maharaja Ratan Singh and Maharaja Kehri Singh (minor) under resident ship of Maharaja Nawal Singh ruled over Agra Fort. There is a haveli in the name Maharaja Nawal Singh in Agra Fort and also a Chhatri of Maharaja Jawahar Singh built in right-side of Khasmahal near the Chhatri of Rosanara-Jahanara.

Maharaja Suraj Mal’s Conquest of Haryana :-

The battle of Panipat was followed by a comparative calm – a quiet of exhaustion; Northern India at least ceased for some time to be the battle-field of the Afghan and the Maratha. Panipat had only shattered the extravagant dream of the Marathas but brought no permanent peace to Islam. The moment the Maratha was overthrown, the Jat came in and challenged her victorious champion who, weary and exhausted, shrank from the contest and retired beyond the Indus. The stubborn Jat courage revived confidence in the prostrated Hindu mind, and Islam was again thrown on the defensive.

Suraj Mal wanted to seize these few moments of his enemies respite for carrying out his two-fold object which he had long in view; first to interpose a solid block of a Jat confederacy between the Abdali and the Ruhelas, extending from Ravi to the Jamuna; secondly to expel Najib-ud-daula from Delhi, restore his protégé the ex-wazir Ghazi-ud-din to his former position and power, and control the policy of empire through him. But he decided not to attack Delhi first but simply cover it during his contemplated campaign. He sought the expansion of his dominion in the tract of Haryana dominated by powerful Muslim jagirdars and the districts around Delhi, mainly inhabited by the Jats.

Maharaja Suraj Mal was active in annexations in the following two years 1762 and 1763. Suraj Mal sent his eldest son Jawahar Singh to conquer Haryana while another army was sent under his youngest son Nahar Singh , to establish his authority in Doab, and watch the movement of the eastern Rohila chiefs

Maharaja SurajMal Attack on Farrukhnagar :-

Towards the end of 1763, arose a quarrel between the Jats and the Baloch. The expansionist ambitions of the former and the latter’s unfriendly policy towards the Jats formed the general background of this event.

Jawahar Singh directed his attack upon Farrukhnagar, held by a powerful Baloch chief, Musavi Khan. But he having failed to capture it, Suraj Mal himself came and laid siege to strong fort of Farrukhnagar in October, 1763, with all his forces and big artillery. Two months passed away and Musavi Khan being hard pressed, consented to surrender it if Suraj Mal would take an oath on the Ganges water not to hinder his departure. But the Jat on this occasion made the same unscrupulous use of the sanctity of the Ganges as that of the Quran by some Muslim rulers. The Baloch chief was made a prisoner and sent to Bharatpur. Thus, after a siege of two months, the fort of Farrukhnagar, along with all its effects came in the Jat possession on about 12 December 1763.

Garhi Harsaru, Rewari and Rohtak had already fallen into the hands of Suraj Mal. He now turned his arms against Bahadurgarh, about 12 kos to the west of Delhi, the strong-hold of another powerful Baloch chief Bahadur Khan. In his distress, the Baloch chief appealed for help to Najib-ud-daula, who however judged it inexpedient to provoke a war with Suraj Mal, before the arrival of the Abdali.

By the year 1763, the Jat power under Suraj Mal had reached such a glorious height, as had never been attained before. Owner of a spacious kingdom, of the richest and overflowing treasury, and of the most formidable and gallant troops unrivalled in contemporary India, as Suraj Mal was, little wonder that needy persons like Mir Qasim of Bengal, turned their eyes for help to him

Support to Other Jat Maharaja’s :-

Even whenMaharaja SurajMal was so busily engaged in the affairs to his north and east, he did not forget to respond to the frantic call of his tribesmen. Maharaja Bhim Singh Rana of Gohad, had built a fort at Gohad and enlarged his possessions as a result of which Gohad grew into one of three power centres of the Jat rule (The other twobeing Bharatpur and Patiala). He had occupied the imperial fort of Gwalior when its commandant preferring him to the waiting Marathas capitulated that fort. This ran contrary to the Maratha ambitions and they besieged Gohad (about June 1755). Now the local Jats knocked at the doors of their big brethren, the the Jats of Bharatpur, for help and Bhim Singh sent his emissary Fateh Singh to Suraj Mal. The later thus obliged and despatched with Fateh Singh a force of 500 horse and 2000 foot to Gohad. Encouraged by this support, the Jats initially worsted force of 15000 Marathas. But with the arrival of reinforcements, the Marathas ultimately overpowered the Jats. Those perished in the fighting include 125 Jat horsemen. It is relevant here to take note of an important reference in Marathi despatch. Speaking about the Gohad Jats, it refers at one place, that they lay banking upon the support of Suraj Mal. This shows that as in the case of Jat Rai of Ballabgarh, Suraj Mal all along displayed a patronizing attitude towards the Jat Ranas of Gohad as well. This may account for the grateful Rana as also the Rai often marching in person under the Bharatpur banners. Maharaja SurajMal also displayed similar attitude, among others, towards the Jat chieftains of Bajhor, Kajraura and Karauli as well. Significantly Sudan also makes a casual hint in this direction.

Death and His Successor :-

Documents and tradition by no means agree as to the manner of Suraj Mal’s death. Father Wendel, writing within five years of this incident, says,

“One day Maharaja Suraj Mal getting news that a large body of the enemy was coming to pounce upon Nahar Singh ( his son and destined successor), who was in that expedition, marched in haste with a few thousand horsemen, to succour him. Unfortunately, in passing through a ditch (nullah) which the river Hindan had left there, he was surprised on both sides by a party of Ruhela infantry – who had been placed in ambush there. By a furious discharge of their muskets … on the Jats still in disorder, they brought down Suraj Mal with all his retinue who lay there on the plain either slain or wounded

Maharaja Suraj Mal died on Sunday 25 December 1763 and the event was recorded in the Waqa only two days after its occurrence, i.e. Tuesday. Besides those quoted in the text it contains the following details:

“ Sayyad Muhammad Khan Baloch cut off the head and hand from the body of the Jat, and brought and kept with himself for two days. After that these were taken to the presence of Nawab Najib-ud-daula. Then only could he believe that Suraj Mal was dead.”

Qanungo has put a question mark on Suraj Mal’s falling into an ambush as father Wendel has said. He has suggested that it is quite likely that the surprise of the reconnoitring party under Suraj Mal by Najib Khan’s retreating troopes was taken as an ambuscade. But the versions of the father and the author of the Siyar do not tally with that of the Bayan and Waqa-i-Shah Alam Sani. The Bayan says that Suraj Mal led six thousand troops to attack; and according to the Waqa 1000 men died on both sides and After the war, when Maharaja Surajmal was walking on the banks of the Hindon river, some Baloch soldiers silenced him and attacked him with weaponshe died there. His valor, courage, and valor have been described by the Sudanese poet in a composition called “Sujan Charitra”.He succeeded to the throne by his son, Maharaja Jawahar Singh.

Legacy of the Great Jat legend Maharaja Surajmal :-

At that time the expansion of the princely state of Bharatpur had reached Dholpur,Mathura, Agra, Mainpuri, Aligarh, Hathras, Etawah, Meerut, Mewat, Rewari, Gurgaon, and Rohtak , Panipat in addition to Bharatpur due to Maharaja Surajmal.At the time of his death, he had an army of about 15,000 cavalries and 25,000 infantry. It was one of the most powerful princely states of India at that time.

The revenue of Bharatpur Kingdom :-

In consequence of his prudence, skill and administrative ability and the measure of protection guaranteed by him, “peaceful” conditions returned to region under his control after a long period of chaos and anarchy. He attended “so admirably … to the job of zamindar , in increasing the value of the country he had subdued, that his expenses so well that for several years he used to save at least half the annual yield of his dominions, despite the big amounts spent on forts, palaces and markets.

As regards the finance of the state, Father Wendel says, “opinions differ on the subject of the treasure and property which he (Suraj Mal) left to his successor. Some estimate it as nine crores, others less. [K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 96] This does not include jewels and other valuables worth a handsome amount. However, according to popular belief the cash in hand with him ranged between 15 to 20 crores.

The trade and commerce also thrived owing to the direct and indirect encouragement offered by the administration, Maharaja SurajMal remitted transit duties through his Kingdom. As a result grain became exceedingly cheap. Similar must have been the case with other commodities. If Suraj Mal constructed royal edifices, he did not forget to order the building of markets. If Imad is to be believed, in Deeg and other places, he built thousands of shops to facilitate the traders Such steps and the peace guaranteed by his benign rule amidst prevailing anarchy attracted the merchants from the outside to the Bharatpur kingdom. Wendel hardly exaggerates in saying:

“ I admit willingly that the Jats are rich, that if even today there is any treasure in Hindustan, after all damages caused by Nadir Shah, the Abdali and the Marathas, it is amongst the Jats.

Love for art and literature :-

Maharaja Suraj Mal was a great lover of arts and literature. He had patronized a number of poets in his darbar, the famous ones were Sūdan, Somnath, Akhairaj, Shivram, Kalanidhi, Vrindavandas, Sudhakar, Harvansh etc.

Sūdan was the main court poet of Maharaja Suraj Mal. He was Mathur by caste resident of Mathura and a favourite of the Maharaja. He had accompanied the Maharaja during all important wars and has written historical account in the book named ‘Sujān Charitra’

Somnath alias Shashinath, resident of village Chhichhora near Mathura, had created books namely Sujān Vilās, Brajendra Vinod, Mādhav Vinod, Dhruv Vinod, Shashināth Vinod, Prem Pachisi, Nawabon Vilās, Sangrām Darpan, Rash Piyush Nidhi, Shrangār Vilās, Rāmcharit Ratnākar Rāmkalādhar, Krishna Lilāwati etc under the guidance of Maharaja Suraj Mal. He had appointed Somnath as dānādhyaksha of the state. Poets Somnath and Kalanidhi tranlated entire Ramayana in to Hindi. On request of Suraj Mal, Somnath translated ‘singhāsan batisi’ to ‘Sujān Vilās’ and later on he wrote all books for Suraj Mal only.

Poet Shivrām remained with Maharaja Suraj Mal from youth period at Kumher and Maharaja Suraj Mal awarded him Rs. 36000 on his poetry Navadhā bhakti rāgras sār written in year 1735, when Suraj Mal was staying at Kumher. Poet Somnath and Kalanidhi had gone to Wair at that time when Suraj Mal’s younger brother Pratap Singh was staying there. Somnath went to Maharaja SurajMal at Deeg after death of Pratap Singh and Kalanidhi stayed at Wair. Both these poets translated entire Ramayana to Hindi at Wair. Kalanidhi, in adition to Hindi translation of three volumes of Ramayana (Bālakānd, Yudhakānd and Uttarkānda), also books like Upanishadsār, Durgā Mahātmya, Rāmagitam, Shrangar Mādhuri and Alankār Kalānidhi.

Poet Akhai Ram wrote three books namely-Singhāsan Batisi, Vikram Vilās and Sujān Vilās for Suraj Mal. First book was published in 1755.

Uday Ram produced two books namely- Girivar Vilās and Sujān Samvat. He has described in Girivar Vilās about the first dīpdan ceremony of Suraj Mal in Manasi Ganga River, where he seems to be present himself. Sujān Samvat is collection of historical informations of Maharaja SurajMal like Sujān Charitra.

Poet Datta’s book ‘Maharaja Suraj Mal ki krapan’ is a unique book of Vīrsāhitya. Mahākavi Dev also came to Bharatpur for patronage. He was there when Deeg fort was being constructed and it is likely that he made ‘Sujān Vinod’ for Maharaja Suraj Mal.

Vrandavandas was also the poet who got patronage of Maharaja SurajMal. in 1756 he was there at the time of attack by Abdali and has described about this severe attack. He wrote the book ‘Hari Kalā Veli’.

The Lohagarh Fort :–

Maharaja Surajmal had built the impregnable Lohagarh Fort, The construction of this fort was made of clay. It was a very deep moat all around. The crocodile was released in it so that no one could come inside. Abdali knew that this fort could not be distinguished. That’s why Abdali went back. Later in 1805, during the reign of his son Maharaja Ranjit Singh Of Bharatpur, the British attacked here 13 times (1805 to 1826), but he could not distinguish this fort. And it came to be known as “Ajay Lohagarh”.

Along with powerful numerous strong forts. His architectural masterpiece like Gopal Bhavan, Suraj Bhavan, and Krishna Bhavan is a living example of his glory.

References :-

  • Sudan:Sujan Charitra
  • Maharaja Surajmal by Kunwar Natwar Singh
  • G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.270
  • G.C.Dwivedi, The Jats, Their role in the Mughal Empire, Ed Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p.251
  • K.R. Qanungo, History of the Jats, Ed. Dr Vir Singh, Delhi, 2003, p. 91-92
  • Dr. Prakash Chandra Chandawat: Maharaja Suraj Mal aur unka yug, Jaypal Agencies Agra, 1982, Page-63
  • Maharaja Suraj Mal And His Era (Hindi): Dr. P.C. Chandawat
  • History of the Jats: Contribution to the History of Northern India (Upto the Death of Mirza Najaf Khan, 1782)/Kalika Ranjan Qanungo
  • Col. G. B. Malleson: An historical sketch of the native states of India/Bharatpur,p.102
  • Aitihasik Sthanavali by Vijayendra Kumar Mathur, p.660
  • Memoires des Jats, (Fr.Ms.), 57,67.
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