Early Life :-

MAHARAJA KIRAT SINGH Ran or Rana Kirat Singh was born at Adhupura, 1763, son of Gohad Rulers Cousin’s line Jagirdar Rao Tara Chand of Adhupura. He was the last Bamrolia Jat ruler of Gohad Kingdom (1803 – 1805) state in Madhya Pradesh, India and the first Bamrolia Jat ruler of the Princely State of Dholpur (1805 – 1835).

Kirat Singh elected as Maharaja :-

Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana was issue less. After the death of Maharaja Chhatra Singh Rana in 1785 entire Gohad area turned into a symbol of anarchy, bloodshed and plunder which continued for 15 years. The Jat rebels could not be controlled either by Marathas or by the British. The revolutionary Jats unanimously declared Kirat Singh son of samant Tara chand of village Neerpura in 1803 as Rana of Gohad. Jagirdar Rao Tarachand was cousin of Rana Chhatar Singh. The coronation ceremony of Kirat Singh took place at ‘Bagathara fortress’, situated at a distance of 12 miles from Gohad, as Gohad and Gwalior were in possession of Sindhia at that time. Thus installed at the Baghthara Fortress, near Gohad, Chait Sud Chodas, Samvat 1845. Restored to the greater part of Gohad by the British in 1803. Granted Dholpur, Bari and Rajakhera in compensation for the seizure of Gohad by the Scindia of Gwalior, December 1805. Established his capital at Dholpur, from which his new state took its name.

Second Anglo-Maratha War

In the Second Anglo-Maratha War at Laswari on 1 November 1803, Lord Lake defeated Sindhia and vanished his reputation. In this war the Jats helped Britishers. The British army officers had affection for Jats.

The treaty of Surji-Anjangaon :-

The War between the English and Sindhia was brought to an end by the treaty of Surji-Anjangaon, which was signed on 30th December 1803 AD. Under the terms of this treaty, the English Government obtained from Sindhia possession of the regions that had been taken from the French in the Doab, together with certain territories in central Rajasthan, and to the west, none of which is pertinent here. Mahadji Sindhia was to retain possession of all those districts ‘to the south of Gohad, of which the revenues had been collected by him in person or through some officer, nominated on his behalf, or land which was held by him for defraying the expenses of his army.
The treaty of Surji-Anjangaon gave vast powers to English in the territories of Marathas. The treaty signed by Ambaji Ingle was also implemented. Gwalior and Gohad had come to English. English signed a treaty with the successor of Gohad, Rana Kirat Singh, under which English handed over the erstwhile Gohad territory to Kirat Singh Rana in early 1804 AD. Kirat Singh Rana accepted Gohad and left the right on Gwalior fort in favour of English.

Subsequently, a dispute arose with Sindhia concerning a clause in the treaty of Surji-Anjangaon by which he had agreed to renounce all claims on his subsidiaries with whom the English Government had made treaties. Sindhia now insisted that the Rana of Gohad could not be included under this clause, because the pretensions of that family had been extinct and their territories had been in Sindhia’s possession for the past 30 years. This was incontrovertible, and the English gave way to Sindhia’s legal argument and abandoned Gwalior and Gohad to him. In the wake of the war, the English had land north of the Chambal to resettle

Treaty of 22 November 1805

To compensate the Rana for his loss of Gohad, and in consideration of the fact that the failure in the relevant stipulation of the treaty had arisen through no fault of his, On 22 November 1805 AD, they revised Surji-Anjangaon treaty of 30th December 1803 AD and offered to grant him the pargana of Dholpur, along with Bari and Rajakhera, north of the Chambal River. Immediately after this treaty Daulat Rao took possession of Gwalior fort.
Kirat Singh Rana reluctantly agreed to relinquish his claim on Gohad, and accept the offer of Dholpur, and thus the former Rana of Gohad became the Rana of Dholpur, and was installed in 1806 AD.

Attack on Gohad fort :-

Gwalior was handed over to Sindhia but to hand over Gohad to him was not easy task.The followers of Rana Kirat Singh such as Rajendra, Mir Babar Ali, K. Jalim Singh etc refused to leave Gohad and expressed quite dissatisfaction over this action of Governor General.About 5000 people gathered at Gohad fort and started repairs of each fort of the state and appointed horse-riders and demanded Rana Kirat Singh to bring back to Gohad. They also sent a team oh horse riders to Dholpur for this purpose.The English officers tried to pacify the rebellions. There continued correspondence between English and the Gohad rebels for a long time. The rebels could not be prepared to leave the fort. The rebels complained that, inspite of their services ren dered to English, this unexpected behavior of snatching their ancestral zamindari without any offence was not justified. After all attempts of compromise failed, English started attack on Gohad fort on 19 February 1806. English forces bombarded the wall of fort on the night of 21 and 22 February. This led to a crack in the wall. This attack was commanded by K. Maclord. He was helped with 750 grenadiers along with 7 companies. They entered through the cracks in the wall and destroyed about half a mile of area. Inside the fort there were rebels equiped with guns. The english Lt. Maquity who had led the soldiers on 21 Febraury night attack was killed. Lt. gill was serioussly injured, who died later on, and Lt. Drice Dat and Grant were also injured. In addition 23 English soldiers were also killed.
Daulatrao Sindhia agreed to fulfill the wishes of rebel chieftains and promised to appoint thm in his services. Gohad fort was handed over to the person appointed by Sindhia on 27 Febraury 1806.

Maharaja Kirat Singh moved to Dholpur :-

Gohad was handed over to Marathas under a revised treaty dated 22 November 1805 between Marathas and Britishers. Under this treaty Gohad ruler Rana Kirat Singh was given Dholpur, Badi and Rajakheda in exchange with Gohad. Rana Kirat Singh moved to Dholpur in December 1805 and was installed in 1806 AD. According to Dr Agnihotri, Rana Kirat Singh moved to Dholpur along with the Jat sardars who appointed him the Rana in Bagthara .
Rana Kirat Singh initially stayed at old Shergarh fort but later shifted his capital to a site 4 miles west of Shergarh.

Maharaja Kirat Singh ruled Dhaulpur up to 1836. He had always friendly relations with the British rulers. During his rule there is mention of rebellion by Rao of Sar Mathura which was crushed by Kirat Singh ruthlessly.

His successor :-

He died at Dholpur, 12th November 1835, having had issue, two sons, who became his successors:

  1. Rana Pohap Singh, Associated with his father in the administration of the state, Rana of Dholpur, 1835 – 1836
  2. Maharaj Rana Bhagwat Singh, Maharaja of Dholpur, 1836 – 1873

References :-

  • English Record of Maratha History, Pune Residency Correspondence, daulatrao affairs, part-11, 1943, p.230
  • Dr. Ajay Kumar Agnihotri (1985) : Gohad ke jaton ka Itihas (Hindi)
  • Dr Natthan Singh (2005): Sujas Prabandh (Gohad ke Shasakon ki Veer gatha – by Poet Nathan), Jat Veer Prakashan Gwalior.
  • G.S. Desai : Marathon ka Naveen Itihas, part-3,pp.446-447
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